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COURSE NAME: "The Popes of Rome: History of the Catholic Church"
SEMESTER & YEAR: Fall 2016

INSTRUCTOR: Erik Walters
EMAIL: [email protected]
HOURS: MW 3:00 PM 4:15 PM

The history of the Catholic church is essentially intertwined with the history of Western Civilization over the past 2,000 years. The aspirations and struggles of Christendom constitute the fabric of the Christian tradition as it unfolds throughout time. This course represents an historical survey of the Church from its primitive beginnings in Jerusalem (c. 33 A.D.) to the Pontificate of John Paul II (1920-2005). The development of the course will trace the major events, ideas and people that went into the shaping of the Western Church, without ignoring the fundamental importance and influence of the doctrine of Jesus Christ regarding the institution he founded.
Christianity remains the world's largest religious body among human beings claiming some degree of affiliation (32%), though Islam rapidly is closing that gap at a current 23% of human beings claiming religious affiliation. Judaism,  traditionally the origin of these other two monotheistic religions, has fewer than 14 million members across the globe. How did the Christian religion gain such predominance? How does it maintain such predominance today? How does it continue to find itself embroiled in all global religious and secular conflicts? One cannot understand the reasons for this situation or, and perhaps more importantly, the current global state of affairs (economic, political, religious, etc.) without some understanding of the history of the Catholic Church.

This course seeks to address these questions and more in three parts (more explicitly detailed in the "Course Schedule" below): 1) Roman Antiquity and the Rise of Chirstianity (e.g. how 3rd century Roman Emperors gradually were replaced by 4th century Christian bishops to hear legal cases in courts of law!); 2) The End of Ancient Civilization and the Rise of the Catholic Church (e.g. how ambassadors of the infamous "Mongolian Horde" of Genghis Khan managed to be present at a Church Council in medieval Europe…and become baptized Catholics!); 3) Humanity Makes, the Papacy Takes (e.g. how NASA sent two Vatican space probes beyond our own solar system…on U.S. taxpayers' expense!). The course foresees an intense amount of lecture material and readings as indicated below.
Upon completing the course, students will be expected to have acquired a general yet adequate understanding of the history of the Church and Papacy from both religious and secular perspectives: the Church as it experiences itself; the Church as experienced from the outside; and that grey area which constitutes the confluence of Church-State relations and ramifications. Students’ comprehension of the fundamental ideas, events, persons, and places that have shaped the Church and its relationship with Western Civilization through an objective and unbiased study both inside and outside the classroom will be evaluated through the research projects and research paper. Students will gain greater familiarity with the evolution of ideas that have influenced the inseparable Church-Civilization interplay through the writing of a research paper, which analyzes the progression of historical situational conflicts, synthesizes their resolutions, and identifies their consequences. All three assessment methods aim to assist the student in learning, perfecting, and absorbing the art of critical thinking for wherever life's destiny may take one.
Book TitleAuthorPublisherISBN numberLibrary Call NumberComments
A Concise History of the Catholic ChurchBOKENKOTTERNew York: Image Books, 1990; reprint, Doubleday, 2003), 624p.0385516134, 9780385516136  
The PopesNORWICHChatto & Windus9780701182908  

Research Project One"Research Project One" will test students' research and note-taking skills through an analysis of assigned readings and class lecture notes. The asignment is divided into two parts: 1) Ten questions to be answered directly from the required readings from the textbooks and those handed out in class: Christian New Testament selected readings; T. Bokenkotter's "A Concise History of the Catholic Church" Chapters 1- 13, i.e. pages 1-141; Norwich's "The Popes"). Students are expected to cite the page number from which they are providing answers; 2) Ten questions to be answered from class lecture notes. Although some answers should be considerably longer and more developed than others, each of the 20 questions is worth five points. This assignment is worth 25% of the final course grade. Projects are to be type-written in Times New Roman 12 point font, single-spaced, and with fully justified margins and are due in class on Wednesday, 12 October 2016. Late, emailed, and hand-written projects will not be accepted and will result in a failing grade for the assignment. N.B. - Grammatical errors will not be deducted but will be indicated.25%
Research PaperA one page bullet-point outline with sources to be used are due in class on Wednesday, 19 October 2016. Research papers are to be 2,500-3,000 words in length including end/footnotes or in text parenthetical citations and bibliography, typewritten in Times New Roman 12 point font, with fully justified margins, double-spaced and are due in class no later than Wednesday, 16 November 2016. The research paper is worth 25% of the final course grade. Late, emailed, and hand-written exams will not be accepted and will result in a failing grade for the research paper. N.B. - Papers are to be composed in grammatically correct and correctly spelled English appropriate to the undergraduate level. Grammatical and spelling errors will be deducted one point for two or more grammatical/spelling errors per page.25%
Research Project Two"Research Project Two" will test students' skills of analysis and synthesis with an end to a demonstration of exercising the art of critical thinking through an examination of assigned readings and class lecture notes. The project is divided into two parts: 1) Ten questions to be answered directly from the required readings from the textbooks (J.J. Norwich's "The Popes" Chapters 9-25, i.e. pages 96-403; T. Bokenkotter's "A Concise History of the Catholic Church" Chapters 14-27, i.e. pages 142-330). Students are expected to cite the page number from which they are providing answers; 2) Ten questions to be answered from class lecture notes. Although some answers should be considerably longer and more developed than others, each of the 20 questions is worth five points. This "Research Project Two" is worth 25% of the final course grade. Projects are to be type-written in Times New Roman 12 point font, single-spaced, and with fully justified margins and are due in the class examination room on the date to be established by the Registrar's Office. Late, emailed, and hand-written exams will not be accepted and will result in a failing grade for the assignment.25%
Class ParticipationClass attendance is strongly encouraged due to the intense amount of lecture material.25%

AWork of this quality directly addresses the question or problem raised and provides a coherent argument displaying an extensive knowledge of relevant information or content. This type of work demonstrates the ability to critically evaluate concepts and theory and has an element of novelty and originality. There is clear evidence of a significant amount of reading beyond that required for the course.(95-100% A; 90-94% A-
BThis is highly competent level of performance and directly addresses the question or problem raised.There is a demonstration of some ability to critically evaluatetheory and concepts and relate them to practice. Discussions reflect the student’s own arguments and are not simply a repetition of standard lecture andreference material. The work does not suffer from any major errors or omissions and provides evidence of reading beyond the required assignments.(87-89% B+; 83-86% B; 80-82% B-)
CThis is an acceptable level of performance and provides answers that are clear but limited, reflecting the information offered in the lectures and reference readings.(77-79% C+; 73-76% C; 70-72% C-)
DThis level of performances demonstrates that the student lacks a coherent grasp of the material.Important information is omitted and irrelevant points included.In effect, the student has barely done enough to persuade the instructor that s/he should not fail.(67-69% D+; 63-66% D; 60-62% D-)
FThis work fails to show any knowledge or understanding of the issues raised in the question. Most of the material in the answer is irrelevant.(59% F)

You cannot make-up a major exam (midterm or final) without the permission of the Dean’s Office. The Dean’s Office will grant such permission only when the absence was caused by a serious impediment, such as a documented illness, hospitalization or death in the immediate family (in which you must attend the funeral) or other situations of similar gravity. Absences due to other meaningful conflicts, such as job interviews, family celebrations, travel difficulties, student misunderstandings or personal convenience, will not be excused. Students who will be absent from a major exam must notify the Dean’s Office prior to that exam. Absences from class due to the observance of a religious holiday will normally be excused. Individual students who will have to miss class to observe a religious holiday should notify the instructor by the end of the Add/Drop period to make prior arrangements for making up any work that will be missed. The final exam period runs until ____________
As stated in the university catalog, any student who commits an act of academic dishonesty will receive a failing grade on the work in which the dishonesty occurred. In addition, acts of academic dishonesty, irrespective of the weight of the assignment, may result in the student receiving a failing grade in the course. Instances of academic dishonesty will be reported to the Dean of Academic Affairs. A student who is reported twice for academic dishonesty is subject to summary dismissal from the University. In such a case, the Academic Council will then make a recommendation to the President, who will make the final decision.
John Cabot University does not discriminate on the basis of disability or handicap. Students with approved accommodations must inform their professors at the beginning of the term. Please see the website for the complete policy.


PART ONE: Roman Antiquity and the Rise of Christianity (Lessons 1-10)

1) Introduction: overview of course prospectus, syllabus, and expectations; paradigms and hermeneutics/methodologies employed
2) Pontifex Maximus: the office from the Roman monarchy, through the Republican SPQR, to the Imperial Period; Roman Law and Religion
3) Jewish and Roman: Mosaic Law; "Church" and "Peter" in the Christian New Testament; Roman Citizenship (1st century CE - Apostolic Period)
4) Roman and Christian: reaction to early Christianity and its "doctrines" (2nd century CE - Sub-Apostolic Period)
5) Competing Cults and Philosophies: Bacchus/Dionysos, Mithras/Sol Invictus, and Christus; Platonism and Stoicism
6) Tertullian's Turn: Stoic "oneness/unity", Christian "trinity", and the emergence of a state within a state (turn of the 3rd century CE)
7) Third Century Crisis I: Culture Clash: the Roman Response to the Christian Universal Assembly: supplications or persecutions
8) Cyprian's Solution: an alternative model of government in the Christian "Universal Assembly" (mid-3rd century CE)
9) Third Century Crisis II: Power Grab: lapsed catholics and the baptismal controversy
10) A New "Deal": Roman policy shift regarding religion and the dawn of a different empire (turn of the 4th century CE)

PART TWO: The End of Ancient Civilization and the Rise of the Catholic Church (Lessons 11-18)

11) Constantinian Turn: religious "freedom", Christian promotion, Nicaea I, and the "Collegium Pontificium" (4th century CE)
12) Theodosian Shift: Julian the "Apostate"; Constantinople I; Ambrose of Milan; identification of church and state
13) Eastern Confusion and Western Concussion: barbarians at the gates; Augustine of Hippo; the Council of Ephesus (5th century CE)
14) Eastern Clarification and Western Paralization: barbarians breach the gates; Leo the Great; Council of Chalcedon
15) Dark Ages I: Rome's Fall and its Repercussions: Christian elites: Boethius; Benedict; Gregory; monasticism; Islam (6th and 7th centuries CE)
16) Dark Ages II: Gettin' Byzantine and Medieval: Charles the Hammer, Charles the Great, a new empire, and the largest "donation" in human history (8th and 9th centuries CE)

N.B. - By this point in the course students should have completed the following readings: Chapters 1-13 of T. Bokenkotter's A Concise History of the Catholic Church (p. 1-141); Chapters 1-8 of J. Norwich's The Popes (p. 1-95); Chapter 6 of N. Christie's The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (handed out in class); Christian New Testament Readings (handed out in class). ALSO, research paper outlines are to be completed by this point in the course!

17) Middle Ages I: Papal and Imperial Showdown: Great Schism; Gregory VII; medieval universities; crusades (10th through 12th centuries)
18) Middle Ages II: King of the Mountain: Magna Charta; Franciscans and Dominicans; Inquisition; Scholasticism; Boniface VIII (12th and 13th centuries CE)

PART THREE: Humanity Makes, the Papacy Takes (Lessons 19-28)

19) While the Pope's Away: Avignon; Black Death; Catherine of Siena; John Wycliffe; Jan Hus; Western Schism (14th century CE)
20) Return of the King: Council of Florence; Eugene IV; Nicholas V; Constantinople's Fall; Alexander VI; a new world (15th century CE)
21) Rinascimento I: Corruption at Home and Abroad: slavery; Savonarola; Julius II; Michelangelo and Rafaello (16th century CE)
22) Rinascimento II: Papal Propaganda: The Rooms of Rafaello
23) Rinascimento III: "Catholic" Catechesis: Michelangelo's ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
24) Rinascimento IV: Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther; Henry VIII; Charles V; Clement VII; Michelangelo's "Last Judgment"
25) Barocco/Enlightenment I: Revolutions Above: conquistadores; Jesuits; Council of Trent; Pius V; Copernicus, Kepler, and Bruno (16th and 17th centuries CE)
26) Barocco/Enlightenment II: Revolutions Below: Galilei, Bernini, Urban VIII, Alexander VII (17th century CE)
27) Who Needs a King?: U.S. Constitution; Napoleon and Pius VII; U.S. Civil War and Pius IX (18th-19th centuries CE)
28) Stronger Than Ever: To Each His Own because They Will Not Prevail: Italian "unification"; l'Osservatore Romano; Fascism; Pius XII; the I.O.R.; Vatican City State; Second Vatican Council; a Vatican "Constitution" (20th-21st centuries CE)

N.B. - By the end of the course students should have completed the following readings: Chapters 14-27 of T. Bokenkotter's A Concise History of the Catholic Church (p. 142-330); Chapters 9-25 of J. Norwich's The Popes (p. 96-403).

IDEAS FOR RESEARCH PAPERS: (the following titles are some actual research papers from previous students of this course over the last six years. You may use these or any other course-related material).

(N.B. – outlines due on Wednesday, 9 March 2016; papers due on Monday, 18 April 2016)


1)      Pope Pius XII and the Jewish Holocaust: Not Enough or More than Enough? (modern)

2)      Cannabilism, Ancient Religious Cults, and Accusations Against the Christians (ancient)

3)      I.O.R.: the Vatican Bank, its History, and its Role in Current Global Politics (modern)

4)      Compare and Contrast Two Popes: Alexander VI and Alexander VII: from the explicit corruption of the papacy to the implicit concession of the modern world (rinascimento and enlightenment)

5)      Tertullian, Cyprian, and a “mathematical proof” of the Trinity? (ancient and modern)

6)      The Shroud of Turin: whose face is it? (ancient, medieval, and modern)

7)      Compare and Contrast Two Ecumenical Councils: Fourth Lateran Council and the Council of Trent (medieval and barocco/enlightenment)

8)      Who Were the “Knights Templar”? (medieval)

9)      How “Christian” was the Roman Emperor Constantine? (ancient)

10)   The Tomb of Simon Peter: Is He Really Buried Beneath St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome?

11)   Faith and/or Reason: an Analysis of Pope John Paul’s Fides et Ratio (modern)

12)   Where Are the Women?!? Catherine of Siena, Hildegard von Bingen, Teresa of Avila, and Christina of Sweden (medieval, rinascimento, and barocco/enlightenment)

13)   Saints in the Making: Mission, Money, or Both? Teresa of Calcutta (modern)

14)   Does Religion Poison Everything? (modern)

15)   A Comparison of Bacchus, Christus, and Mithras (ancient)

16)   “Father” Marciel Maciel: the Legionaries of Christ and the Sexual/Pedophilia Scandal in the Catholic Church (modern)

17)   The Crusades: for God or Gold? (medieval)

18)   Pope Pius IX: Italy United or Divided? (modern)

19)   Why Were Popes Leo I and Gregory I So “Great”? (ancient and medieval)

20)   Did the Catholic Church Endorse Slavery, or Just Give it a “divine blessing”? (ancient, medieval, rinasciemto/barocco/enlightment)




What a “research paper” IS NOT: An academic research paper at the undergraduate level is not a “reflection paper”. Its content is not a reflective opinion based on a superficial gathering of disjointed data assembled into a subjective summary. It is not a “book report”. It is not “journaling”. It does not include “feelings”. It is not written in the “first person”. It is not the demonstration of a debatable position with the goal of persuading its readers to agree or disagree, no matter how successfully argued.

What a “research paper” IS: An academic research paper at the undergraduate level is precisely that: a written body of academic research based on an analysis of primary and/or secondary sources regarding the object of inquiry. The analytical research is assembled, then, into a coherent synthesis of the analytical results, which can be understood by anyone reading the research paper (perhaps not in its details but in its coherency). This is the first step in the undergraduate student’s demonstration of a capacity for productive critical thinking. Such an exercise assists the student in perfecting these skills of analysis, synthesis, and critical thinking both for the undergraduate “senior thesis” and for any and every field of future employment. Moreover, it is a confirmation of the undergraduate student’s capacity for future “guided/assisted” research at the post-graduate M.A./Master’s level and, beyond that, competency in “independent” research at the Ph.D. level.

Topic and Title: Do not select a topic that is too broad and general. Rather, choose a topic that is very focused. For example, a topic and title such as “Medieval Christianity” is much too broad and vast. Do select a topic like “Medieval Scholastic Thought on the Existence of God”, which is more focused in the context of the Catholic Church’s medieval period of history.

Sources: The research paper must include no less than five sources from academic, scholarly, and reliable sources. Blogs, websites, journal, and magazine articles can be used as long as they satisfy the conditions previously indicated. In case of doubt, please, inquire with your course instructor. Wikipedia, which may be a very helpful tool to direct your further research, remains a “tool” and not a source. Online academic and scholarly research articles are available through J-Stor, and many books are available in JCU’s Frohring Library.

Outline and Structure: The research paper has three main sections: 1) an introduction (one page): introduce the topic and an overview of the material to be presented; 2) the body of research (six to seven pages): the material of the research itself; 3) a conclusion (one to two pages): a brief summary of the material presented and any open-ended questions remaining regarding the analyses and conclusions of sources used. A “works cited page” must be included, also.


Composition and Citation: The research paper is to be composed in grammatically correct English appropriate to the undergraduate level, type written, and printed out in Times New Roman font size twelve with fully justified margins. The word count should be 2,500-3,000 including a ‘Works Cited’ page. Either ‘Chicago/Turabian’ (footnotes) or ‘MLA’ (in text parenthetical including name of author and page number) style of citation is accepted, provided that it be consistent throughout the paper. A minimum of twenty-five such reference citations should be incorporated, and no more than half of all citations should be direct quotations. Late, e-mailed, or hand-written papers will not be accepted and will result in a failing grade for the assignment.

FURTHER INFORMATION THAT MAY BE OF INTEREST: (all texts available in JCU’s Frohring Library)


Adler, Mortimer J.

-          Aristotle for Everybody: Difficult Thought Made Easy, ISBN 0-684-83823-0.

-          Ten Philosophical Mistakes, ISBN 0-684-81868-X.


Craig, William Lane.


-          Creation Out of Nothing: a Biblical, Philosophical, and Scientific Exploration, ISBN 0-8010-2733-0. - --

-          Reasonable Faith, ISBN 978-0-89107-764-0.


Dawkins, Richard.

-          The God Delusion, ISBN 0-618-68000-4.

-          The Greatest Show on Earth: the Evidence for Evolution, ISBN 0-593-06173-X.


Dennett, Daniel.

-          Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon, ISBN 0-670-03472-X.

-          Science and Religion, ISBN 0-199-73842-4.


D’Souza, Dinesh.

-          What’s So Great About Christianity? ISBN 1-596-98517-8.

-          Godforsaken: Bad Things Happen. Is there a God Who Cares? YES. Here’s Proof, ISBN 978-1414324852.


Harris, Sam.

-          The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason, ISBN 0-393-03515-8.

-          The Moral Landscape: How Science Can Determine Moral Values, ISBN 978-1-4391-7121-9.

-          Letter to a Christian Nation. ISBN 0-307-26577-3.

-          Free Will, ISBN 978-1451683400.


Hitchens, Christopher.

-          Is Christianity Good for the World? ISBN 1-59128-053-2.

-          The Portable Atheist: Essential Readings for the Non-Believer, ISBN 978-0-306-81608-6.

-          The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice, ISBN 1-85984-054-X.

-          God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything, ISBN 0-446-57980-7.

-          Thomas Jefferson: Author of America, ISBN 0-06-059896-4.

-          Thomas Paine’s “Rights of Man”: A Biography, ISBN 1-84354-513-6.


Hirsi Ali, Ayaan.

-          The Caged Virgin: An Emancipation Proclamation for Women and Islam, ISBN 978-0-7432-8833-0.

-          Infidel, ISBN 0-7432-9503-X.


Jaki, Stanley L.

-          Means to Message: a Treatise on Truth, ISBN 0-8028-4651-3.

-          The Savior of Science, ISBN 0-8028-4772-2.

Krauss, Lawrence.

-          A Universe from Nothing: Why There Is Something Rather Than Nothing, ISBN 978-1-4516-2445-8.


Turek, Frank.

-          I Don’t Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist, ISBN 978-1581345612.


Schönborn, Christoph.

-          Chance or Purpose? Creation, Evolution, and a Rational Faith, ISBN 978-1-58617-212-1.


VIDEO ONE: “Is Islam a Religion of Peace?

92Y Talks (5 October 2010)

Moderator: Laurie Goodstein

Motion For: Tariq Ramadan

Motion Against: Christopher Hitchens

(video length 1:31:21) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mMraxhd9Z9Q

VIDEO TWO: “Is Islam a Religion of Peace?”

Intelligence Squared – U.S. (6 October 2010)

Moderator: John Donvan

Motion For: Zeba Khan; Maajid Nawaz

Motion Against: Ayaan Hirsi Ali; Douglas Murray

(video length 1:46:35) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rh34Xsq7D_A

VIDEO THREE: “Islam: A Religion of Peace or Violence?

The Richmond Forum (26 November 2013)”

Moderator: John Donvan

Ayaan Hirsi Ali; Maajid Nawaz; Feisal Abdul Rauf

(video length 1:57:31) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n2prB3weT4c

VIDEO FOUR: “The Catholic Church Is a Force for Good in the World”

Intelligence Squared – UK (2009)

Moderator: Zainab Badawi

Motion For: John Onaiakin; Anne Whitaker

Motion Against: Stephen Fry; Christopher Hitchens

(video length 1:59:09) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LrIHw0fZNOA

VIDEO FIVE: “Is Religion the Problem?”

The Henkels Lecturer Series,

The Center for Philosophy of Religion and the

Institute for Scholarship in the Liberal Arts – Notre Dame University (2010)

Moderator: Michael Ray

Motion For: Christopher Hitchens

Motion Against: Dinesh D’Souza

(video length 1:48:03) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9V85OykSDT8

VIDEO SIX: “Atheism, Theism, Antitheism92Y Talks (2008)

Moderator: Neil Gillman

Motion for Theism: Shmuley Boteach

Motion for Atheism and Antitheism: Christopher Hitchens

(video length 1:33:55) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vnMYL8sF7bQ

VIDEO SEVEN: “Is Good from God?”

The Henkels Lecturer Series, The Center for Philosophy of Religion and the Institute for Scholarship in the Liberal Arts – Notre Dame University (2011)

Moderator: Michael Ray

Motion For: William Lane Craig

Motion Against: Sam Harris

(video length 2:06:54) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqaHXKLRKzg

VIDEO EIGHT: “What Best Explains the Universe:

Theism or Atheism?”

The College of New Jersey – (2011)

Moderator: James Taylor

Motion for Theism: Frank Turek

Motion for Atheism: Christopher Hitchens

(video length 2:06:18) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dlozGOXJNFg

VIDEO NINE: “Is it Reasonable to Believe that God Exists?”

The City Bible Forum – Australia (August 2013)

Moderator: Graham Oppy

Motion For: William Lane Craig

Motion Against: Lawrence Krauss

(video length 1:46:24) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ol-A_SU3m5c

VIDEO TEN: “Science Refutes God”

Intelligence Squared – U.S. (2012)

Moderator: John Donvan

Motion For: Lawrence Krauss; Michael Schermer

Motion Against: Dinesh D’Souza; Ian Hutchinson

(video length 1:48:54) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RKNd_S3iXfs

VIDEO ELEVEN: “Evolution or Creationism/Intelligent Design?” Q&A – Australia (2012)

Moderator: Tony Jones

Motion for Evolution: Richard Dawkins

Motion for Creationism/Intelligent Design: George Pell

(video length 1:00:29) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y8hy8NxZvFY

VIDEO TWELVE: “Something from Nothing”

The Origins Project – Arizona (2012)

Lawrence Krauss

(video length 54:11) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sUH77mYBUtM

VIDEO THIRTEEN: “Does God Exist?”

Biola University – California (2009)

Motion For: William Lane Craig

Motion Against: Christopher Hitchens

(video length 2:27:24) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OxvalmFOgAc


Samford University – USA (2009)

Motion For: John Lennox

Motion Against: Christopher Hitchens

(video length 1:53:24) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Al3Y8Lssps

VIDEO FIFTEEN: “Christopher Hitchens”

Festival of Dangerous Ideas – Sydney (2009)

Interlocutor: Tony Hawkins

As Himself: Christopher Hitchens

(video length 1:43:50) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kwiHkM126bk