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COURSE NAME: "History and Politics of the Middle East"
SEMESTER & YEAR: Spring 2015

INSTRUCTOR: Michael Driessen
EMAIL: [email protected]
HOURS: MW 11:30 AM 12:45 PM
PREREQUISITES: Prerequisite: PL 223; Recommended: PL 209
OFFICE HOURS: T & Th 1:30-2:30pm

The Middle East is shaping contemporary global politics in profound ways. From the Arab Spring, to the Palestinian Peace Process, to Nuclear Weapons in Iran, to the Petrodollars of Saudi Arabia, to the skyscrapers of Doha and Dubai, to the War in Syria, to Muslim Democracy in Turkey, the Middle East is much talked about, but little understood. This course is designed to introduce students to the deeper political dynamics which structure many of these events. Students will explore both the international and domestic sources of Middle East politics, its complexities, patterns, variations and possible futures. Emphasis will be placed on the cultural, religious, historical, social and institutional legacies of modern state development in the Middle East and introduce students to the new faces, ideas and hopes which continue to shape it.  

The course is divided into historical, thematic and case sections. It begins by briefly revisiting the early modern period of Middle East history and the critical years stretching between the end of the Ottoman Empire, decolonization and the establishment of new nation-states in the Middle East. The course then examines the mix of religious, social, political, and international forces which have evolved in various guises to shape politics over the last fifty years. In order to illustrate and understand these forces, students will systematically explore (and eventually apply them to) the political profiles of Algeria, Qatar, Iran, Syria, Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia. The course ends by reflecting on how these forces have exploded in the recent Arab Uprisings and the battle for Syria and what that means for the new Middle East to come.

With this course, it is my hope that students will be able to master and name the basic political and social dynamics of contemporary Middle East politics and, as a result, be able to reflectively read, comprehend and evaluate the dramatic events unfolding in the region today.
Book TitleAuthorPublisherISBN numberLibrary Call NumberComments
The Middle East (13th Edition)Ellen LustCQ Press978-1452241494  
Life as Politics (2nd edition)Asef BayatStanford University Press978-0-8047-6924-2  
Book TitleAuthorPublisherISBN numberLibrary Call NumberComments
Origins of AlliancesStephen WaltCornell University Press0801494184  
International Politics of the Middle eastFred HallidayCambridge University Press0521592402  

Reading Reflections (7)1. Map Quiz 2. Reflection on Arab Nationalism & Battle of Algiers 3. Reflection on Paradise Now & Middle East Peace Process 4. Presidents, Prime Ministers, Parties, Kings and Current Events Quiz 5. Reflection on “Life as Politics” & the Yacoubian Building 6. Reflection on Arab spring 40%
Case Study Paper8-10 page country profile 25%
Mid-Term5-7 page take home exam25%
Attendance and Presence of Mind 10%

AWork of this quality directly addresses the question or problem raised and provides a coherent argument displaying an extensive knowledge of relevant information or content. This type of work demonstrates the ability to critically evaluate concepts and theory and has an element of novelty and originality. There is clear evidence of a significant amount of reading beyond that required for the course
BThis is highly competent level of performance and directly addresses the question or problem raised.There is a demonstration of some ability to critically evaluatetheory and concepts and relate them to practice. Discussions reflect the student’s own arguments and are not simply a repetition of standard lecture andreference material. The work does not suffer from any major errors or omissions and provides evidence of reading beyond the required assignments.
CThis is an acceptable level of performance and provides answers that are clear but limited, reflecting the information offered in the lectures and reference readings.
DThis level of performances demonstrates that the student lacks a coherent grasp of the material.Important information is omitted and irrelevant points included.In effect, the student has barely done enough to persuade the instructor that s/he should not fail.
FThis work fails to show any knowledge or understanding of the issues raised in the question. Most of the material in the answer is irrelevant.

Participation, Attendance and Presence of Mind are mandatory for this class. The goal here is to advance towards the art of asking good questions. Quality, not quantity of participation is what counts, although some quantity is better than no quality. Students will be allowed 2 unexcused absences. Each unexcused absence thereafter will result in the lowering of the attendance grade by 1/3rd a letter grade. More than 12 unexcused absences may result in a failure to pass the course.
As stated in the university catalog, any student who commits an act of academic dishonesty will receive a failing grade on the work in which the dishonesty occurred. In addition, acts of academic dishonesty, irrespective of the weight of the assignment, may result in the student receiving a failing grade in the course. Instances of academic dishonesty will be reported to the Dean of Academic Affairs. A student who is reported twice for academic dishonesty is subject to summary dismissal from the University. In such a case, the Academic Council will then make a recommendation to the President, who will make the final decision.
John Cabot University does not discriminate on the basis of disability or handicap. Students with approved accommodations must inform their professors at the beginning of the term. Please see the website for the complete policy.




In a course on contemporary regional politics, it is essential to familiarize oneself with the unfolding political events of the time, especially if the student is not acquainted with the region. Read one of the following newspapers or otherwise online media daily. We will be talking (and trying to come to terms with) these headline events throughout the course. Two quizzes, one geographical and one on current events and persons, in addition to the Midterm, will require this familiarization:


Al Jazeera: http://aljazeera.com/

Al Arabiya: http://english.alarabiya.net/

Al Ahram: http://english.ahram.org.eg/

Haaretz: http://www.haaretz.com/

Zaman: http://www.todayszaman.com/mainAction.action

BBC Middle East: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world/middle_east/

Jaddaliya (blog) : http://www.jadaliyya.com/#


One of the best ways, of course, to familiarize oneself with the politics of the Middle East is to actually visit the Middle East. The next best thing is watch Middle Eastern movies (and eat lots of humus). During class we will view and analyze part of an important film about Arab liberation movements and Arab nationalism, i.e. The Battle of Algiers. In addition, I have put six contemporary Middle Eastern films on reserve for the class at the library. For Assignments 3 or 6 (but not both) you have the option of writing a critical film review of one of these movies. The films on reserve for this class are as follows:


The Battle of Algiers (Gillo Pontecorvo, 1966)

The Yacoubian Building (Marwan Hamed, 2005)

Paradise Now (Hany Abu-Assad, 2005)

Ahlaam (Mohamed al-Daradji, 2005)

Budrus (Just Vision, 2010)

Al-Midan/The Square (Jehane Noujaim, 2013)


Course Outline:

Part I. History, States, Structures, Ideas

1. Towards the Nation-state in the Modern Middle East

            Countries: Turkey & Algeria

2. State Formation and Institutions

            Countries: Syria & Iraq

3. The Regional and International Politics of the Middle East

            Countries: Israel & Palestine

4. The Political Economics of the Middle East

            Countries: Saudi Arabia & Persian Gulf States

Part II. Religion, Society, Culture, Politics

5. State-Society Relations

            Country: Morocco

6. Religion and Politics

            Countries: Iran and  Lebanon

7. What the People Say

            Country: Jordan

8. Life as Politics: How Ordinary People Change the Middle East

            Country: Egypt

Part III. New Directions:

9. Arab Spring, War and the Islamic State

            Countries: Tunisia & Libya & Syria again

Course Calendar

January 19

Class 1

Course Introduction

Part I: History, States, Structures, Ideas

1. Towards the Nation-state in the Modern Middle East

January 21

Class 2

What is the Middle East? Where did it come from?

Michael Gasper, “The Making of the Modern Middle East,” in Middle East, (Chapter 1), pp.s 1-26.

William Dalrymple, “The Truth about Muslims,” New York Review of Books (2004). http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2004/nov/04/the-truth-about-muslims/?pagination=false

January 23

Class X

The Islamic State and the Geopolitics of Christian-Muslim relations in the Middle-East today

Special Guest Speaker Dr. Fr. Fadi Daou, founder and chairperson of Adyan Foundation, Lebanon


January 26

Class 3

Empires, Colonialism and Modernization

Assignment 1: Map Quiz


Michael Gasper, “The Making of the Modern Middle East,” in Middle East, (Chapter 1), pp.s 26-53.

Mine Eder, “Turkey,” in Middle East, (Chapter 25), pp.s 830-840.

Recommended: Kemal H. Karpat, “The Transformation of the Ottoman State, 1789-1908,” International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 3 (1972). http://psi424.cankaya.edu.tr/uploads/files/Karpat,%20Transformation%20of%20the%20Ott%20State,%201789-1908%20%281972%29.pdf

January 28

Class 4

Liberation and Arab Nationalism


Read Lahouari Addi, “Algeria,” Middle East (Chapter 10), pp.s 429-433.

Fouad Ajami, “The End of Pan-Arabism,” Foreign Affairs 57 (1978).

Film: Battle of Algiers

Recommended: Read Lahouari Addi, “Algeria,” Middle East (Chapter 10), pp.s 433-447.

2. State Formation and Institutions

February 2

Class 5

Institutions and States

Assignment 2 Due: Reflection on Arab Nationalism & Battle of Algiers


Ellen Lust,“Institutions and Governance,” in Middle East, (Chapter 3).

Recommended: Adeed Dawisha, “Requiem for Arab Nationalism,” Middle East Quarterly Winter (2003).

February 4

Class 6



Eva Bellin, “The Robustness of Authoritarianism in the Middle East,” Comparative Politics (2004). http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/levitsky/files/bellin.pdf

Steven Heydemann, “Upgrading Arab Authoritarianism,” Brookings Institute (2007). http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2007/10/arabworld/10arabworld.pdf

Recommended:  Raymond Hinnebusch,“Syria,” in Middle East, (Chapter 23)  & Eric Davis, “Iraq,” in Middle East, (Chapters 13).

Daniel Brumberg, “The Trap of Liberalized Democracy” Journal of Democracy 13 (2002). http://www.journalofdemocracy.org/sites/default/files/Dan_Brumberg.pdf

3. The Regional and International Politics of the Middle East

February 9

Class 7

Israel, Palestine, Wars


Read, Mark Tessler,“The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict,” (Chapter 7), pp.s 287-341.

Recommended: Lihi Ben Shitrit,“Israel,” in Middle East, & Benoit Challand, “Palestinian Authority” (Chapters 14 & 20).

February 11

Class 8

Regional Alliance Formations


Read, Mark Tessler,“The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict,” (Chapter 7), pp.s 341-361.

Michael Gasper, “The Making of the Modern Middle East,” in Middle East, (Chapter 1), pp.s 53-62.

Recommended: Stephen Walt, The Origins of Alliances, Cornell University Press, chapters 3 & 4 [on reserve]

February 16

Class 9

Iran-Iraq War


Read, Marc Lynch, “Regional International Relations,” in Middle East, (Chapter 8)

Recommended: Gary Sick, “Trial by Error: Reflections on the Iran-Iraq War,” Middle East Journal 43 (1989).

“Martyr Burials and Election Politics in Iran,” Middle East Research and Information Project, 2009


February 18

Class 10

International Politics


Francesco Cavatorta, “International Politics of the Middle East” in Middle East, (Chapter 9).

Fred Halliday, Middle East and International Politics, (2005)  pp.s 21-41 [on reserve].


4. The Political Economics of the Middle East

February 23

Class 11

Political Development

Assignment 3 Due : Reflection on Middle East Peace & Wars


Melani Cammett,“The Political Economy of Development in the Middle East” in Middle East, (Chapter 4).

Recommended: Marc Lynch, “Mysteries of the Emir,” Foreign Policy (2013). http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2013/06/27/mysteries_of_the_emir_power_transfer_qatar

Hesham Al-Awadi, “Kuwait”  in Middle East, (Chapter 16).

February 25

Class 12

Oil States and Rentierism

Mid-Term Exam Distributed

Pascal Menoret, “Saudi Arabia,” and Katja Niethammer, “Persian Gulf States” in Middle East, (Chapters 21 & 22).

Recommended: Michael Ross, “Does Oil Hinder Democracy,” World Politics 53 (2001) http://www.cmsconsultores.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/doesoil.pdf

Part II: Religion, Society, Culture, Politics

5. State-Society Relations

March 2

Class 13

Social Transformations

Read Valentine M. Moghadam and Tabitha Decker, “Social Change in the Middle East” in Middle East, (Chapter 2).

March 4

Class 14

New Demographies

Olivier Roy, “The Transformation of the Arab World,” Journal of Democracy,” (2012). http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/23403/ROY-JOD-2012_PostPrint.pdf

Driss Maghraoui and Saloua Zerhouni, “Morocco” in Middle East, (Chapter 18), pp.s 662-671 & 673-683.

6. Religion and Politics

March 9

Class 15

Islam and Politics


Read Robert Lee and Lihi Ben Shitrit, “Religion Society, and Politics in the Middle East”in Middle East, (Chapter 5).

Mona el-Ghobashy “The Metamorphosis of the Egyptian Muslim Brothers,” International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 37 (2005).

Recommended: Carrie Wickham, “The Path to Moderation: Strategy and Learning in the Formation of Egypt’s Wasat Party,” Comparative Politics (2004).

March 11

Class 16

Post-Islam and Politics


Read Mehrzad Boroujerdi, “Iran”  in Middle East, (Chapter 12), pp.s 478-499.

Berna Turam, “Are Rights and Liberties Safe?” Journal of Democracy, 23 (2012).

Recommended: Sebnem Gumuscu, “Class, Status and Party: The Changing Face of Political Islam in Turkey and Egypt,” Comparative Political Studies (2010)

Ates Altinordu “Occupy Gezi: Beyond the Religious-Secular Cleavage,” The Immanent Frame (2013). http://blogs.ssrc.org/tif/2013/06/10/occupy-gezi-beyond-the-religious-secular-cleavage/

Paul Salem, “Lebanon,”  in Middle East, (Chapter 17).

7.What the People Say

March 16

Class 17

Public Opinion

Assignment 4: Presidents, Prime Ministers, Parties, Kings and Current Events Quiz


Read Amaney Jamal and Lina Khatib, “Actors, Public Opinion, and Participation,” in Middle East (Chapter 6).

March 18

Class 18

Democracy Attitudes & Muslim Pluralism


Mark Tessler, Amaney Jamal and Michael Robbins. 2012. “New Findings on Arabs and Democracy,” Journal of Democracy 23(4) 89-103: http://www.journalofdemocracy.org/article/new-findings-arabs-and-democracy

Charles Kurzman and Ijlal Naqvi, “Do Muslims Vote Islamic?” Journal of Democracy 21 (2010).

Recommended: Laurie A. Brand, “Jordan” in Middle East, (Chapter15).

8. Life as Politics: How Ordinary People Change the Middle East

March 23

Class 19

The Poor and the Perpetual Pursuit of Life Chances

Read Bayat, chapters 1, 3 & 4

Recommended: Tarek Masoud, “Egypt,” in Middle East (Chapter 11).

March 25

Class 20

Street Politics and the Political Street

Read Bayat, chapters 6, 7 & 9

Recommended:  “Rock the Mullahs & Heavy Metal Islam,” Interview with Mark Levine on Slate: http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/books/2008/07/rock_the_mullahs.html

March 30

Class 21

Everyday Cosmopolitanism


Read Bayat chapters 10 & 11

III. New Horizons

9.Arab Spring, War and the Islamic State

April 1

Class 22

Assignment 5 Due: Reflection on Life as Politics

F. Gregory Gause, “Why Middle East Studies Missed the Arab Spring: The Myth of Authoritarian Stability,” Foreign Affairs (81) 2011.


Economist, “Has the Arab Spring Failed” Special Report (2013) http://www.economist.com/printedition/2013-07-13

Timeline: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/interactive/2011/mar/22/middle-east-protest-interactive-timeline

Map: http://thehiddentranscript.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/arab-spring-map1.jpg

Recommended: Pew Form, “Arab Spring Adds to Global Restrictions on Religion (2013) http://www.pewforum.org/Government/arab-spring-restrictions-on-religion-sidebar2.aspx

Faoud Ajami,”The Arab Spring at One: A Year of Living Dangerously,” Foreign Affairs (2012).


April 13

Class 23

Maghrebi Springs


Read Jeffrey A. Couple and Hamadi Redissi, “Tunisia,” in Middle East (Chapter 24), pp.s 789-815.

Ahmed Benchemsi, “Morocco: Outfoxing the Opposition,” Journal of Democracy (2012).

Michael Driessen, “Algerian Elections: Everybody Loses Again” (2012) http://michaeldriessen.com/2012/05/20/elections-in-algeria-everybody-loses-again/

Recommended:  Mohamed-Salah Omri, “Tunisia’s Dangerous identity Politics,” Think Africa, (2013)


Amanda Kadlec, “Libya”  in Middle East, (Chapter 18).

April 15

Class 24


Samer Shehata, “In Egypt, Democrats v. Liberals” July 2nd, 2013, New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/03/opinion/in-egypt-democrats-vs-liberals.html?hp&_r=1&

Marc Lynch, “Downfall in Cairo,” Foreign Policy, July 3rd, 2013



“As Egyptians Grasp for Stability Sisi Fortifies his Presidency,” New York Times


Nathan Brown, “Post-Revolutionary Al-Azhar” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (2011)


April 20

Class 25

Refo-lutions? Islam and the Arab Spring

Read Bayat chapters 12, 13, 14 & 15

April 22

Class 26


Geneive Abdo, “The New Sectarianism: The Arab Uprisings and the Rebirth of the Shi’a-Sunni Divide,” Brookings March/April (2013) http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2013/04/sunni%20shia%20abdo/sunni%20shia%20abdo.pdf

Recommended: Lynch “The War for the Arab World,” Foreign Policy March (2013) [response to Abdo].


Human Rights Watch: Syria Government Likely Culprit in Chemical Attack:


Wendy Pearlman, “Love in the Syrian Revolution,” 2013 Huffington Post http://www.huffingtonpost.com/wendy-pearlman/love-in-the-syrian-revolu_b_3616646.html

April 27

Class 27

The Islamic State and its Aftermath


BBC “The Arise of the Islamic State,” http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-28116033

Washington Post, “Tracking the Islamic State,” http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/special/world/islamic-state-tracker/

“Western Jihadists Defend their War on Assad” New York Times 2014



VICE NEWS: Islamic State Documentary: https://news.vice.com/video/best-of-vice-news-2014-the-islamic-state-full-length

“Life in a Jihadist Capital: Order with a Darker Side” New York Times 2014


“Al Qaeda Slaughters: Syria Killing Fields” Al Jazeera 2014


Reuters, “Convert, Pay Tax, or Die,” July 2014: http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/07/18/us-iraq-security-christians-idUSKBN0FN29J20140718

April 29

Class 28

Conclusions on the future of the Middle East


Jürgen Todenhöfer, “Islamic State: Seven Impressions of a Difficult Journey,” http://juergentodenhoefer.de/seven-impressions-of-a-difficult-journey/?lang=en

Q&A German Journalist on Surviving ISIL (Al Jazeera) http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/2014/12/qa-german-journalist-surviving-isil-20141224164752725983.html

Final Exam

Hand in papers