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COURSE NAME: "Hitler and Mussolini"
SEMESTER & YEAR: Fall 2023

INSTRUCTOR: Luca De Caprariis
EMAIL: [email protected]
HOURS: MW 4:30 PM 5:45 PM
PREREQUISITES: Prerequisites: One previous history course. Co-requisites: EN 110; Recommended: Junior Standing
OFFICE HOURS: M; W: 3:00-4:00

History Research Seminar: 300-level history courses designated by the prefix HS-RS indicate courses being offered as Research Seminars. These courses are writing-intensive and help to train students to carry out original research by guiding them through the preparation of a significant research paper. History majors are encouraged to take these before their senior year, and especially before the semester in which they prepare their thesis.
This course will provide an advanced survey of the Fascist and National Socialist Movements and Regimes. The main emphasis will be on the breakdown of the Italian and German democracies, the emergence of Fascism and National Socialism, their ideology and goals, and the nature and structure of Mussolini’s New State and Hitler’s Third Reich. The major interpretations of Fascism will be examined in the last part of the course.
There will be two sessions per week, mostly based on the discussion of primary sources. Student should be punctual, and come to class prepared, completing the assigned readings before each class meeting.
This course will teach students to understand the nature and ideology of Italian Fascism and German National Socialism through an in depth analysis of primary and secondary source material.
Book TitleAuthorPublisherISBN numberLibrary Call NumberCommentsFormatLocal BookstoreOnline Purchase
Hitler's Germany: Origins, Interpretations, LegaciesR. StackelbergRoutledge9780415770217  Ebook available, JC libraryEbook  
A History of FascismS. PayneUniversity of Wisconsin Press9780299148737 available as an ebook from JC libraryEbook  
The Fascist Revolution in Italy: A Brief History with Documents Marla StoneBedford9780312454159     
Italian Fascism: its origins and developmentA. De GrandUniversity of Nebraska9780803266223     
Hitler's National CommunityLisa PineBloomsbury Academic 9781474238779     

Research Paper (10-12 pages)Students will explore a topic appropriate for the course chosen in consultation with me. I will guide you through the processes of preparing a first draft and revising that draft to produce a stronger final paper. You also will present this paper to the rest of the class for discussion. The grade on this assignment will be determined by the strength of your analysis and research, the persuasiveness of your argument (including quality of writing), and the originality of your though40%
History and Historiography of Fascism, problems of interpretation (5-6 pages)You will discuss the problem related to the interpretation of one aspect of the two fascist regimes (ideology, structure of the Regime, foreign policy, economic policies, racial policies, the role of the leader...) 35%
Source analysis (5-6 pages)You will select and analyze one or more of the primary sources examined during the course.35%

AWork of this quality directly addresses the question or problem raised and provides a coherent argument displaying an extensive knowledge of relevant information or content. This type of work demonstrates the ability to critically evaluate concepts and theory and has an element of novelty and originality. There is clear evidence of a significant amount of reading beyond that required for the course.
BThis is highly competent level of performance and directly addresses the question or problem raised.There is a demonstration of some ability to critically evaluatetheory and concepts and relate them to practice. Discussions reflect the student’s own arguments and are not simply a repetition of standard lecture andreference material. The work does not suffer from any major errors or omissions and provides evidence of reading beyond the required assignments.
CThis is an acceptable level of performance and provides answers that are clear but limited, reflecting the information offered in the lectures and reference readings.
DThis level of performances demonstrates that the student lacks a coherent grasp of the material.Important information is omitted and irrelevant points included.In effect, the student has barely done enough to persuade the instructor that s/he should not fail.
FThis work fails to show any knowledge or understanding of the issues raised in the question. Most of the material in the answer is irrelevant.



You cannot make-up a major exam (midterm or final) without the permission of the Dean’s Office. The Dean’s Office will grant such permission only when the absence was caused by a serious impediment, such as a documented illness, hospitalization or death in the immediate family (in which you must attend the funeral) or other situations of similar gravity.

Attendance is mandatory. Students should keep their mobile phone turned off during lecture. You may use your laptop to take notes, but you are not allowed to surf the wen during class. Should you fail to follow these rules I will ban laptop from classroom altogether.

As stated in the university catalog, any student who commits an act of academic dishonesty will receive a failing grade on the work in which the dishonesty occurred. In addition, acts of academic dishonesty, irrespective of the weight of the assignment, may result in the student receiving a failing grade in the course. Instances of academic dishonesty will be reported to the Dean of Academic Affairs. A student who is reported twice for academic dishonesty is subject to summary dismissal from the University. In such a case, the Academic Council will then make a recommendation to the President, who will make the final decision.
John Cabot University does not discriminate on the basis of disability or handicap. Students with approved accommodations must inform their professors at the beginning of the term. Please see the website for the complete policy.



 Introduction and Overview. 

The Cultural Transformation of the Fin De Siècle. I
P: 23-68; Sta: 45-56.

The Cultural Transformation of the Fin De Siècle. II
P: 23-68; DG 5-21; Sta 45-56.

World War I.
P: 71-79; Sta: 35-44, 57-67.

The Post War Crises I. Weimar Germany
P: 147-157; Sta 67-84.

Hitler: from Linz to Munich, via Vienna.
P: 147-157; Sta: 67-84.

The Post-War Crises II. The Breakdown of Liberal Italy.
Revolutionary Agitation and Mussolini’s "Fasci di Combattimento."
DG: 21-30; P: 80-94.

Growth and Transformation of Fascism. The "March on Rome"
DG: 31-37; P: 94-110.

1922-1925: Mussolini as Semi-Constitutional Prime Minister
DG: 41-54; P: 110-115.

Italy 1925-1929: Mussolini’s "New State."
DG: 54-77; P: 115-128.

Weimar Stabilization. The Main Kampf and the Rebuilding of the Nazi Party. P: 157-164; Sta: 84-88.

The Great Depression and the Collapse German Democracy.
P: 164-81; Sta 89-112.

The Nazi Seizure of Power.
P: 164-181; Sta 89-112.

The Gleichschaltung of Germany.
P:164-179; Sta: 113-134.

Mussolini’s Regime in the early 1930’s. The Age of Consensus.
I. The Organization of Consensus.
DG: 77-91; P: 212-226.

Midterm Examination

The Age of Consensus. II 
The Duce’s’s Totalitarian Project.
DG: 77-91; P: 212-226.

Fascist Foreign Policy. Ethiopia.
DG: 92-102; P: 227-238.

The Nazi State: Society and Economy.
P: 179-194; Pine 17-98; Sta 135-158.

The Nazi State: Building a Volksgemeinschaft. I.
P: 194-211; Pine 101-165; Sta; 159-175.

4    The Nazi State: Building a Volksgemeinschaft. II.
Sta 176-187; Pine: 169-225.

Paper Presentation.

Hitler’s Foreign Policy: The Road to War.
Sta: 188-21.

Mussolini’s Regime after Ethiopia: Semi-Nazification and the Racial Laws. 
DG: 103-116; P: 238-244.

World War II. The National Socialist New Order.
DG: 117-123; P: 355-380; Sta: 214-233.

Nazi policies of mass extermination: The Holocaust.
P: 380-382; Sta: 254-274.

Mussolini’s Parallel War.
DG: 123-129; P: 382-391. Defeat and Destruction of Fascism. DG: 130-137; P: 411-414; 436-437; Sta: 234-253.

Interpretations of Fascism.
DG: 138-163; P: 441-495; Pine: 227-234; Sta: 292-309; 13-25