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COURSE NAME: "Nineteenth-Century Europe and the World"
SEMESTER & YEAR: Fall 2020

EMAIL: [email protected]
HOURS: TTH 8:20-9:40 AM
OFFICE HOURS: See the course Moodle page.

This course explores the history of Europe and its relations with the larger world from the French Revolution to the outbreak of World War I. In it, students investigate the cultural, diplomatic, economic, political, and social developments that shaped the lives of nineteenth-century Europeans. Significant attention will be given to the relationship between Europeans and peoples in other parts of the world, the development of new political ideologies and systems, and the ways in which everyday life and culture changed during this period.

Satisfies "Modern History" core course requirement for History majors.
This course will be composed of a mixture of in-class discussion, on-line discussion (Moodle), and some lecture.  For an overview of topics to be discussed and readings, see the course schedule.  Please note that all up-dates to that course schedule will be made directly to the course Moodle page--you should access it on a regular basis.

A Note on How to Approach this Semester (and How I Am Doing So)

As we all know too well, the Fall 2020 semester will likely be anything but business as usual.  The ways in which we will be mixing in-person and on-line interactions as well as possible unanticipated rapid transitions between them may present challenges to us all. 

I am convinced that whatever may come we can and will have a meaningful semester in which we all learn a lot, but we will have to keep in mind doing so may require even greater flexibility, consideration for one another, and self-discipline on all of our parts than usual. We will all be facing learning curves as we go forward and in all likelihood we all will make judgments that afterwards we would not make again (I hesitate to call such judgments mistakes as that suggests that we know that in advance, as opposed to being things we try and then learn from).

For these reasons, please know that the ways in which I am proposing structuring classroom sessions and on-line discussion activities in this syllabus are admittedly experimental and may change.  Please share your thoughts on them and feel free to suggest approaches, ways of organizing discussions (in-person or on-line), or other activities that you believe may help you and your classmates to better engage with the course material.  I cannot neglect my responsibility to set the rules for the game that is our course in ways that I believe best assure both academic rigor and fairness across the class, but you can be assured that I will value and carefully consider any suggestions you may make. 

More generally, I am committed to the principle that my aims as an undergraduate history instructor should be to push (and to help) you to develop the skills, capacities, and modes of interpretation and understanding that will allow you to engage critically with the human past, the traces it has left, the ever-renewing knowledge we have of it, and its meanings for our present.  My role is that of a ‘coach,’ not a performer playing a show or a talking head telling you what’s what (although sometimes I will suggest my understandings of that too).  With this approach, you will without doubt learn more and develop abilities that are useful in other settings more fully than if I simply lectured and asked you to repeat that material on exams, and you will likely find what we do more interesting too. However, for this approach to work, you need to commit yourselves to the following:

1.  Do the course reading (and especially the discussion reading) on a timely basis.  You absolutely must complete it before the class in which we are discussing it and/or the deadline for making a related forum post (if you can finish it even earlier and thus have a bit more time to think about it, that’s even better).  Frequently this course will involve a significant amount of out-of-class reading.  I know that this may be a challenge for some of you, but we collectively need an ample amount of solid material to work with to make our discussions meaningful.  Also, do know that with practice you will develop your abilities to deal with larger amounts of reading in limited time frames.  We will talk more about how to do the reading and the kinds of things you should be looking for in doing it in class.

2.  Respect deadlines for discussion forum posts, and whenever possible post (and respond to classmates’ posts) sooner rather than later.  While these posts do count towards your participation grade, they are not ‘homework’ that you should do to show me that you are doing the work.  Rather, they are opportunities for you to develop, share, and debate your thoughts and questions about the reading and other course material with one another.  We have to meet deadlines to give that interaction space to happen.

3.  Maintain a respectful, professional tone in your posts and responses, but don’t be afraid to experiment with ideas and interpretations out of fear that they may be controversial (just work on clearly expressing your reasoning).  On this note, I think our discussions will function best if we all work on the assumption that each of us is openly and forthrightly attempting to grapple with the complexities and ambiguities of our shared human past and its relationship to our present (and that the things we say and write are never intended to harm or to insult).  Engaging with that past often forces us to look at the many horrid and ugly things that humans have done (and continue to do) to one another, which can be a difficult and painful experience.  Frank and open discussion is the best way both to seek to understand that past and to forge civil and tolerant ways of interacting and living with it and one another in the present.

4.  Give credit where credit is due, and be sure that all work you hand in is your own.  I do not believe that point needs extensive discussion.  Not only does plagiarism or any other form of cheating defeat the whole purpose of going to university to learn and to improve one’s abilities, it undermines the basic trust any community needs to learn and work together.

5.  Try not to be too nervous about grades.  We learn by practice, we all fall short of our aims sometimes, and we sometimes learn more from falling short than anything else.  I purposefully keep many assignments very open in terms of the types of topics and arguments you may develop to give you the freedom to present your ideas and sharpen your abilities, and such freedom always entails risks.  Know that I put mechanisms in place to weigh the improvement that you make over the course into the calculation of your final course grade.

6.  Keep lines of communication open—if you have questions or concerns, raise them.

In successfully completing this course, you should:

     Cultivate an understanding of the most important themes and developments of nineteenth-century European and global history;
     Develop an understanding of some of the most important modes of analysis that historians use to reconstruct and interpret that past.

You should work on developing (and improving) the following skills:

      Critical analysis of primary sources;
      Critical analysis of historians’ and other scholars' arguments;
      Developing well-reasoned, well-supported arguments;
      Effectively communicating your arguments in writing and oral discussion.
Book TitleAuthorPublisherISBN numberLibrary Call NumberCommentsFormatLocal BookstoreOnline Purchase
A Concise History of Modern Europe: Liberty, Equality, Solidarity Fourth EditionMason, DavidRowman & Littlefield Publishers978-1-5381-1327-1  Available at the Almost Corner Bookshop   

Participation (In-Class and On-Line)Your regular participation in our class discussions will be key to making this course work, and by actively participating not only will you learn more, you’ll develop useful communicative skills and likely find course material to be more interesting. Participation also counts for a significant portion of your final course grade, and it is the only component of that final course grade in which simple effort and regular activity translate directly into a high grade. What do you need to do for this? Simply do the discussion readings on time, be ready to talk about them, and engage regularly and actively in some combination of our in-class discussions and the Moodle discussion forums for the course. For further information on the nature of our Moodle discussion forums and 'minimum' expectations for on-line participation see the course schedule (and the forums themselves on Moodle).20%
3-4 Reaction Papers (1 1/2 to 2 double-spaced pages/350-500 words each)In each of the reaction papers (see the course schedule for due dates), you will develop a brief but coherent and well-supported argument regarding the discussion readings for the day on which the paper is due. In these papers, you should not summarize the reading, but rather develop a main thought of your own building on those readings. Ways of developing such arguments include, but are not limited to: critiquing some part of the argument of a secondary source, testing some part of the argument of a secondary source through the analysis of a primary source, comparing and contrasting different readings, or developing a point made by one of the authors more fully and in doing so explaining more of what it may tell us about the subject under discussion. Your grade for these reaction papers will be determined by the strength and focus of your analysis, the persuasiveness of your argument (including quality of writing), and the originality of your thought. For further guidance, see the guidelines posted on the course Moodle page.25%
Take-Home Midterm ExamThe midterm exam will be composed of two essay questions I will give you the week before the exam is due. You will answer one of those questions in a take-home essay (4-6 double-spaced pages, c. 1000-1500 words). You are expected to cite any authors and works you use in developing your arguments. Your grade on the exam will depend upon the analytical strength and persuasiveness of your arguments, your capacity to discuss the material we cover in the course as a whole (including level of mastery of course readings), and the factual accuracy of your answers. Remember that what you are being tested on is your ability to develop and present a strong, well-supported argument building on the course materials, not simply provide a 'correct' answer to the question you choose. See the course schedule for the take-home essay's due date.25%
Take-Home Final Exam The final exam will be composed of two essay questions I will give you the week before the exam is due. You will answer one of those questions in a take-home essay (4-6 double-spaced pages, c. 1000-1500 words). You are expected to cite any authors and works you use in developing your arguments. Your grade on the exam will depend upon the analytical strength and persuasiveness of your arguments, your capacity to discuss the material we cover in the course as a whole (including level of mastery of course readings), and the factual accuracy of your answers. Remember that what you are being tested on is your ability to develop and present a strong, well-supported argument building on the course materials, not simply provide a 'correct' answer to the question you choose. It will be due on the last day of the final exam period. 30%

AWork of this quality directly addresses the question or problem raised and provides a coherent argument displaying an extensive knowledge of relevant information or content. This type of work demonstrates the ability to critically evaluate concepts and theory and has an element of novelty and originality. There is clear evidence of a significant, thorough, and insightful engagement with the course reading and other materials.
BThis is a highly competent level of performance and directly addresses the question or problem raised. There is a demonstration of some ability to critically evaluate theory and concepts and relate them to practice. Discussions reflect the student’s own arguments and are not simply a repetition of standard lecture and reference material. The work does not suffer from any major errors or omissions and provides evidence of significant engagement with the course reading and other materials.
CThis is an acceptable level of performance and provides answers that are clear but limited, reflecting the information offered in the lectures and reference readings.
DThis level of performance demonstrates that the student lacks a coherent grasp of the material. Important information is omitted and irrelevant points included. In effect, the student has barely done enough to persuade the instructor that s/he should not fail.
FThis work fails to show any knowledge or understanding of the issues raised in the question. Most of the material in the answer is irrelevant.

See above on participation.  To participate regularly, you have to be present regularly.
As stated in the university catalog, any student who commits an act of academic dishonesty will receive a failing grade on the work in which the dishonesty occurred. In addition, acts of academic dishonesty, irrespective of the weight of the assignment, may result in the student receiving a failing grade in the course. Instances of academic dishonesty will be reported to the Dean of Academic Affairs. A student who is reported twice for academic dishonesty is subject to summary dismissal from the University. In such a case, the Academic Council will then make a recommendation to the President, who will make the final decision.
John Cabot University does not discriminate on the basis of disability or handicap. Students with approved accommodations must inform their professors at the beginning of the term. Please see the website for the complete policy.


Course Readings

The textbook reading (Mason) complements our discussions and the lectures by providing you with further contextual information and different interpretations of past events. You should try do the textbook reading for the day it is assigned, and this is even more important if this is the first time you have studied these topics. It should be available at the Almost Corner Bookshop (Via del Moro, 45).

Please note that I have chosen a textbook that provides a very short and basic introduction to major developments in nineteenth-century Europe in light of the extensive nature of our other required readings.  Given the global scope of the course, we will rarely be able to discuss specific historical events to the extent that they merit.  As such, you may find it useful to refer to one or more of the following to get a fuller, deeper review of European and world History during the 19th century:

Robin W. Winks and Joan Neuberger, Europe and the Making of Modernity, 1815-1914
C.A. Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World, 1780-1914
Jonathan Sperber, Revolutionary Europe, 1780-1850 and Europe 1850-114: Progress: Participation and Apprehension

All other readings provide the basis for our classroom and on-line discussions. You must read and think about those assigned for a particular class period and/or the deadline for making a related forum post.  Otherwise, you will be unable to participate adequately and your participation grade will suffer. You should also bring this material to class on the days that we are discussing it.

Please note that in using on-line primary sources I am not necessarily endorsing the more general content and intent of the websites on which they are found.


Important Course Policies

All assignments should be handed in through the Moodle portal for the assignment.

All late work will be penalized by at least one letter grade. No late work will be accepted following the final examination.

Any documented case of academic dishonesty on any assignment will result in a failing grade for the assignment in question and may also result in a failing grade for the course as a whole, regardless of the assignment's weight in terms of the final course grade. Please remember that, as the University's policy states, "Plagiarism can be deliberate or negligent; students are responsible for ensuring that any work submitted with their name on it is properly referenced."  If you have questions about how to cite material properly, refer to the appropriate sections of the MLA Style Manual or Chicago Manual of Style--if you have questions as to whether particular pieces of material should be cited, ask me. Note that submitting work that you have previously submitted (or plan to submit) for credit in another course is also a form of academic dishonesty, unless you obtain explicit approval from both instructors to do so. For this course, no such double submission is allowed. Please note that your papers and take-home exams are to be submitted to turnitin.com to check their content for plagiarism.  I am setting up the turintin submission options so that you can see the similarity reports the service generates and resubmit your papers up until the due date.


Office Hours, Scheduling Appointments, E-mail Guidance, etc.

My office hours are posted on the course Moodle page along with a link for attending them--following JCU suggestions, they will be carried out remotely using MS Teams this semester.  If you need to schedule an appointment to speak with me, simply send me an e-mail identifying times during the upcoming week when you are available.  Please know that I do not normally respond to e-mails during the weekend or after 6:30-7 p.m. (but do feel free to write me at those times--I'll answer at the beginning of the next week or the next day).  In the context of mixed on-line and in-class education, it is even more important for all of us to set aside time to work on other things, disconnect, recharge, and 'stay human.'  I encourage you to do the same in ways that work with your schedule, and am trying to do what I can to provide as much flexibility as possible for you in structuring on-line and other out-of-class activities. 


Types and Formats of On-line Moodle Discussion Forums

“Questions for the Professor” Forum:  Use this forum to ask for clarifications regarding material that we discussed in class or if there is something in the readings that you feel remains unclear, confusing, etc..  Also try to read through this regularly to see if a classmate asked a question that you too have, but just hadn’t thought of yet.  When you do so, if you feel that you can answer a classmate’s query, please feel free to go ahead and do so.  I will review this forum the Mondays and Wednesdays before class meetings—depending on the nature of the question I’ll either respond directly in the forum or we’ll talk about it at the beginning of the next class session.  (This forum closes at noon on Monday of the following week—if you realize you have a question after it’s closed simply post your question on the next week’s “Questions for the Professor Forum under the “Questions about something from earlier in the semester” topic.”)

“Your Discussion Questions and Observations” Forum:  For at least one of our two weekly sessions, you should post a question or observation about the discussion readings (e.g., for the second class of the first week of class, “The Declaration of the Rights of Man”) that you believe would provide a good way of starting a discussion about them and the subject they treat.  You should post your questions/observations by 5:30 p.m. on the day before the class in which we will be discussing the readings in question (e.g., if they are on Tuesday’s reading, make your post by 5:30 on Monday) so that I have time to read them, think about them, and try to work them into our classroom discussions the next day.  Try to read through them before class yourselves too—in that way you can better prepare yourself for whatever we end up talking about.  Feel free to build on your classmate’s questions/observations, and if there’s a post you want to respond to that we don’t end up talking about in class, please feel free to continue the discussion here.  There is no specific required length for your posts (if you likely need 2-3 sentences to situate and raise your question/make your prompt).  This weekly forum closes at 12 p.m. on Monday of the following week, but if there’s a strand of discussion you think we should continue into the next week because it remains relevant to the next topics we are discussing feel free to start it anew in the next week’s forum. (Maximum expected time per week, not including the time needed to do the reading: 10-20 minutes)

“Reflecting on the Week, Continuing our Classroom Discussion” Forums: For this weekly forum, I will post a few discussion questions or prompts based on the week’s discussion readings and the material I anticipate us discussing in class.  On occasion, as the week goes on, I’ll also add a few of the questions/prompts that you put up on the “Your Discussion Questions and Observations” Forum.  You should post at least one response to at least one of these threads and at least one response to a classmate's post each week. Of course, feel free to post as much as you like. There is no specific required length for your posts (if you likely need a few sentences to make your point effectively).  This weekly forum closes at 12 p.m. on Monday of the following week. (Maximum expected time per week, not including the time needed to do the reading: 15-30 minutes)


In-Class Organizational Matters Whenever Some Students Are Either Absent or Attending Remotely

In light of the very particular nature of this semester, should any member of the class not be physically present in the classroom, we will have to record the class session.  In addition, whenever one or more members of the class are following the day's session remotely, I will need to ask one or more of those of you who are present to monitor the MS Teams stream and inform me should a remote student raise the hand icon or intervene by means of the Teams chat.


Accessing the Course Remotely

If you are obliged to follow the course remotely, you can find a link for accessing the course stream at the top of the course Moodle page.  Clicking on the link there should then bring you to the MS Teams meeting where we will stream class sessions.


Course Schedule (Please note that the following is subject to change--any updates will be made directly to the course Moodle page.  All discussion readings are available on the course Moodle page.)

9/22 Introductions—Modernity and the Old Regime

FOR DISCUSSION: “Nineteenth-Century Modernity According to Contemporaries”  

9/24 The Old Regime and the Atlantic Revolutions

Mason, 1-36 (Introduction, Chps. 1-2)
FOR DISCUSSION: “Early Modern, Old Regime, Criminal Justice” and “The Declaration of Rights of Man”


9/29 The Atlantic Revolutions and their Napoleonic Aftermath

FOR DISCUSSION: “The Declaration of Rights of Man;” "Napoleon's Account of the Internal Situation of France in 1804"  

10/1 The Birth of Modern Ideologies, Part I—Conservatism, Liberalism, and Democratic Radicalism

Review Mason, 23-36 (Ch. 2)
FOR DISCUSSION: Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France (excerpts); Tocqueville, Democracy in America (excerpts); Burke and Tocqueville on Empire

10/6 The “Restoration” and Its Discontents

Mason, 47-52 (First 4 sections of Ch. 4)
FOR DISCUSSION: Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France (excerpts); Tocqueville, Democracy in America (excerpts); Burke and Tocqueville on Empire; The French Constitutional Charter (1814);  Bolivar, "Letter to General Juan José Flores: Ploughing the Sea (Colombia, 1830);" "Tocqueville on the Dangers of US Disunion;"  Tsar Nicholas I, "Imperial Manifesto on Poland, 1832);"  Guizot, "Condition of the July Monarchy (France, 1831-1842)"
Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 1 (11:59 p.m.)

10/8 The Industrial Revolution, I—Global Causes, Comparisons and Technology

Mason, 37-46 (Ch. 3)
FOR DISCUSSION: Marks, “The Industrial Revolution and Its Consequences, 1750-1850”
Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 1 (11:59 p.m.)

10/9 OFFICIAL FRIDAY MAKE-UP FOR TUESDAY CLASSES (for December 8)  The Industrial Revolution, II—Local Social and Cultural Consequences

FOR DISCUSSION: Stearns, “The Social History Approach;” “Women Miners in the English Coal Pits;” Dickens, Hard Times (Excerpt); Ure, “The Philosophy of the Manufacturers;” “Observations on the Loss of Woolen Spinning, 1794;” “Leeds Woolen Workers Petition, 1786;” “Letter from Leeds Cloth Merchants, 1791”
Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 1 (11:59 p.m.)


10/13 The Industrial Revolution III—Global Impacts I, or Slavery and Antislavery

FOR DISCUSSION: Davis, “Explanations of British Abolitionism;” Beckert, “Slavery Takes Command”
Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 1 (11:59 p.m.)  

10/15 The Birth of Modern Ideologies, Part II—Economic Liberalism and Early Socialisms

FOR DISCUSSION: Smith, Wealth of Nations excerpts; Ricardo, “The Iron Law of Wages;” Tristan, “Excerpts from Worker’s Union;” Saint-Simon, “Letters of an Inhabitant of Geneva”
Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 1 (11:59 p.m.) 

10/16 OFFICIAL FRIDAY MAKE-UP FOR TUESDAY CLASSES:  Questions of Feeling—Religious Revival, Cultural Romanticism and the Changing World of Artistic Production

FOR DISCUSSION: Salmi, “From the Cult of Genius to the Worship of Art”
Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 1 (11:59 p.m.) 


10/20 The Birth of Modern Ideologies, Part III—Nationalism

Mason, Review 47-52 (First 4 sections of Ch. 4)
FOR DISCUSSION: Salmi, "On the Cultural History of Nationalism;" Herder, "Materials for the Philosophy of Mankind;" and Mazzini, "An Essay on the Duties of Man"
Last Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 1 (11:59 p.m.) 

10/22 Mid-Century Transitions, I—China, the British Empire and the Opium Wars

FOR DISCUSSION: “The First Opium War”
Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 2 (11:59 p.m.) 



10/27 The Making of the Global North and Global South—A First Look at the Second Half of the Century

FOR DISCUSSION: Marks, “The Gap”
Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 2 (11:59 p.m.) 

10/29 Mid-Century Transitions, II—Global Instability from the 1840s to the 1860s

FOR DISCUSSION: Bayly, “Between World Revolutions” (Excerpts)
Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 2 (11:59 p.m.)


11/3 Mid-Century Transitions, III—The European Revolutions of 1848

Mason, 52-57 (Remainder of Ch. 4)

11/5 Mid-Century Transitions, IV—The “Second Industrial Revolution” and the “Great Depression of the Nineteenth Century”


11/10 Uniting the World, Dividing People and Spaces, I—Transportation, the Telegraph and Mass Migration

Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 2 (11:59 p.m.) 

11/12 Uniting the World, Dividing People and Spaces, II—Disease, Sanitation, and Urban Transformations

FOR DISCUSSION:  Bayly, “Worldwide Urban Cultures and their Critics;” Headrick, “Cities, Sanitation and Segregation”
Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 2 (11:59 p.m.) 

11/13 OFFICIAL FRIDAY MAKE-UP FOR THURSDAY CLASSES:  Modern Living—Consumption, Class and Culture in Paris and Latin America

FOR DISCUSSION: Zola, The Ladies Paradise (Excerpts); Images of Parisian Department Stores; Bauer, “Extranjerizacion: The Self-Estrangement of the Belle Epoque Elite”
Last Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 2 (11:59 p.m.)

11/17 Modern Beliefs—Religion and Science in the Age of Darwin

Mason, 71-81(Ch. 6)
FOR DISCUSSION: Bayly, “Empires of Religion” (Excerpts); Al-Afghani, “Lecture on Teaching and Learning;” Wilberforce, “On Darwin’s Origin of Species;” “ Mivart, “On the Genesis of the Species, 1871;” Gladstone, “Points of Supposed Collision Between the Scriptures and Natural Science”
Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 3 (11:59 p.m.)  

11/19 The Evolution of Modern Ideologies, I—Marxist Socialism, Anarchism, and Russian Populaism

Mason, 59-69 (Ch. 5)
FOR DISCUSSION: Marx and Engels, The Communist Manifesto; Bernstein, “Evolutionary Socialism;” Bakunin, “Stateless Socialism: Anarchism;” “The Letter of the Executive Committee of the Will of the People to Tsar Alexander III”
Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 3 (11:59 p.m.)  


11/24 The Evolution of Modern Ideologies, II–-Nationalism Transformed?

Mason, 83-92 (Ch. 7)
FOR DISCUSSION: Hobsbawm, “Mass Producing Traditions;” TBA
Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 3 (11:59 p.m.) 

11/26 Global Empires and the “Gap,” I—Means and Motivations

Mason, 93-102
FOR DISCUSSION: TBA; “British Missionary Letters Urging the Annexation of the South Sea Islands, 1883;” Lugard, “The Rise of Our East African Empire, 1893;” Ferry, “On French Colonial Expansion, 1884;” Earl of Cromer, “Why Britain Acquired Egypt in 1892, 1908;” Prince Utomski, “Russia’s Imperial Destiny, 1891”
Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 3 (11:59 p.m.)


12/1 Global Empires and the “Gap,” II—Colonial Experiences in the Congo Free State

FOR DISCUSSION: Encyclopedia Britannica, “Congo Free State” (1902); Casement, “The Congo Report;” TBA
Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 3 (11:59 p.m.)

12/3 Global Empires and the “Gap,” III—Metropolitan Experiences, Racism, and “Civilization”

FOR DISCUSSION: Pearson, “National Life from the Standpoint of Science;” “Galton, “The Comparative Worth of Different Races;” Kipling, “The White Man’s Burden, 1899”
Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 3 (11:59 p.m.)


12/10 Is This The End?—Fin de Siècle Culture and the Rise of an Avant-Garde

Mason, 103-107 (First five sections of Ch. 9)
FOR DISCUSSION: Salmi, “Fin de Siècle;” Salmi, “Things to Come;” Nietzsche, “The Madman”
Last Possible Due Date for Reaction Paper 3 (11:59 p.m.)

12/14 (MONDAY) TAKE-HOME FINAL EXAM DUE (11:59 p.m.)