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JOHN CABOT UNIVERSITY

COURSE CODE: "RL 221-1"
COURSE NAME: "The Popes of Rome: History of the Catholic Church"
SEMESTER & YEAR: Fall 2019
SYLLABUS

INSTRUCTOR: Erik Walters
EMAIL: [email protected]
HOURS: MW 3:00-4:15 PM
TOTAL NO. OF CONTACT HOURS: 45
CREDITS: 3
PREREQUISITES:
OFFICE HOURS:

COURSE DESCRIPTION:
The history of the Catholic church is essentially intertwined with the history of Western Civilization over the past 2,000 years. The aspirations and struggles of Christendom constitute the fabric of the Christian tradition as it unfolds throughout time. This course represents an historical survey of the Church from its primitive beginnings in Jerusalem (c. 33 A.D.) to the Pontificate of John Paul II (1920-2005). The development of the course will trace the major events, ideas and people that went into the shaping of the Western Church, without ignoring the fundamental importance and influence of the doctrine of Jesus Christ regarding the institution he founded.
SUMMARY OF COURSE CONTENT:
Christianity remains the world's largest religious body among humans claiming some degree of affiliation (32%), though Islam rapidly is closing that gap at a current 23%. Judaism, traditionally the origin of these other two monotheistic religions, has fewer than 14 million members across the globe. How did the Christian religion gain such predominance? How does it maintain such prominance today? How does it continue to find itself embroiled in all global sectarian conflicts? One cannot understand the reasons for this situation or, and perhaps more importantly, the current global state of affairs (economic, political, religious, etc.) without some understanding of the history of the Catholic Church and its Popes.

This course reviews the ancient Judeo-Roman foundations of the Christian religion from the 8th century BCE through the 1st cenury CE throughout the Mediterranean basin. Following a thorough review of early Christianity in the ancient Roman Empire between the 2nd and 5th centuries CE and the latter's metamorphosis into medieval "Christendom" between the 6th and 14th centuries CE, the course delves into the two schisms within Christianity (the Orthodox and Protestant Reformation breaks) and its development into the Roman Catholic Church, its own counter-Reformation, and the modern age of the "Enlightenment" and "Scientific Revolution" between the 15th and 17th centuries CE. Each of the mid-term and final exams are 3,000 word essay responses to 10-20 questions based on lecture material, course texts, and some combination of the two. These exams will test the student's capacity for analysis and synthesis of course lecture and textbook material and develop critical thinking and its comprehensible communication through English composition. The more recent and contemporary periods of the Popes and the Catholic Church will be addressed directly through individual course participants' in aula oral and visual "Project Presentations" based on outside research and sources annotated by the intructor's further lecture material covering the 18th through the 21st centuries CE. This will examine students' capacity for using current multimedia platforms in demonstrating and communicating the results of that outside research through public speaking.
LEARNING OUTCOMES:
Upon completing the course, students will be expected to have acquired a general understanding of the history of the Church and Papacy from both religious and secular perspectives: the Church as it experiences itself; the Church as experienced from the outside; and that grey area which constitutes the confluence of Church-State relations and ramifications. Students’ comprehension of the fundamental ideas, events, persons, and places that have shaped the Church and its relationship with the global context are the aim and goal. Moreover, students' capacity for analyzing and synthesizing in class lecture material, course texts, and outside research and the coherent and comprehensible communication of that material through the written and spoken word serves to developing the skill of critical thinking.
TEXTBOOK:
Book TitleAuthorPublisherISBN numberLibrary Call NumberComments
A Concise History of the Catholic ChurchBokenkotterNew York: Image Books, 1990; reprint, Doubleday, 2003), 624p.0385516134, 9780385516136 Kindle version is accepted.
Saints and Sinners: A History of the PopesDuffyYale University Press9780300115970 Kindle version is accepted.
The PopesNorwichChatto & Windus9780701182908 Kindle version is accepted.
REQUIRED RESERVED READING:
NONE

RECOMMENDED RESERVED READING:
Book TitleAuthorPublisherISBN numberLibrary Call NumberComments
Unitas in Latin AntiquityWaltersPeter Lang9783631614938 Kindle version is accepted.
GRADING POLICY
-ASSESSMENT METHODS:
AssignmentGuidelinesWeight
Mid-Term ExamThe "Mid-Term Exam" will test students' research and note-taking skills through an analysis of assigned readings and class lecture notes. The asignment is divided into two parts: 1) Questions to be answered directly from the required readings from the textbooks and those handed out in class: Christian New Testament selected readings; T. Bokenkotter's "A Concise History of the Catholic Church"; Norwich's "The Popes"; Duffy's "Saints and Sinners". Students are expected to cite the page/verse number from which they are providing answers; 2) Questions to be answered from class lecture notes. "Mid-Term Exams" are to be type-written in Times New Roman 12 point font, single-spaced, and with fully justified margins and are due in class on Wednesday, 16 October 2019. Errors in grammar, punctuation, syntax, diction, composition, and formatting will be deducted for a total of 15 points out of 100. Although some answers should be considerably longer and more developed than others, each of the questions is worth five points. This assignment is worth 25% of the final course grade. Student names are to appear nowhere on the written project. Rather, students will submit written exams using their JCU ID number. This process is to ensure transparency and impartiality in evaluating and grading written projects. Late, emailed, and hand-written exams will not be accepted and will result in a failing grade for the assignment. Questions and clarifications as per the prompt/instructions should be addressed in class for the benefit of all course participants. No such emailed questions or clarifications will receive a response. In case of legitimate and documented emergency situations communicated by JCU's Academic Dean's Office to the course instructor via email, late submissions will be accepted within 48 hours after the indicated due date for submission and will result in one full letter grade deduction beyond the actual grade awarded for the project. The "Mid-Term Exam" will be posted on MyJCU four weeks before the assignment is due.25%
Research Project PresentationEach student will select in class on Wednesday, 16 October 2019 one topic from a list , which will be attached to the "Mid-Term Exam", and will present that research project in class on either Wednesday, 20 November or Monday, 25 November 2019. Presentations are to be five minutes in duration. Presentations will address the following regarding the selected topic in question: 1) Historical and geographical contextualization of the selected topic (When and where?); 2) Biographical overview of the topic (Who?); 3) Three major issues, contributions, and/or controversies surrounding this topic (What?); 4) Reasons this topic is considered to be important during or after his or her lifetime (How?); 5) What, if any, relevance does this figure have today? (Why?) Presentations will be evaluated on the quality of the research itself as communicated in the oral presentation as well as the quality of public speaking and communication skills. Project presentations must use some form of visual/audio media (PowerPoint, etc.). Research Project Presentations may not be presented on any other day. If a student is unable to present, then a grade of 00% "F" will be awarded.25%
Final ExamThe "Final Exam" will test students' skills of analysis and synthesis with an end to a demonstration of exercising the art of critical thinking through an examination of assigned readings and class lecture notes. The exam is comprised of questions to be answered from class lecture notes and incorporating citations from the required readings from the textbooks (J.J. Norwich's "The Popes"; T. Bokenkotter's "A Concise History of the Catholic Church"; Duffy's "Saints and Sinners". Students must cite the page number from which they are providing answers. Projects are to be type-written in Times New Roman 12 point font, single-spaced, and with fully justified margins. Errors in grammar, punctuation, syntax, diction, composition, and formatting will be deducted for a total of 15 points out of 100. Each of the questions is worth ten points. This project is worth 25% of the course grade. Student names are to appear nowhere on the written project. Rather, students will submit written projects using their JCU ID number. This process is to ensure transparency and impartiality in evaluating and grading written projects. Final Exams are due in the examination room by the end of the exam period on the date assigned to be determined by the registrar's office during the semester in progress. Students will write their JCU ID number next to their names on the course student roster list in the examination room when they submit their Final Exam, confirming their submission and allowing the examiner to identify the student for the final course grade calculation. Late, emailed, and hand-written Final Exams will not be accepted and will result in a failing grade for the assignment. In case of legitimate and documented emergency situations communicated by JCU's Academic Dean's Office to the course instructor via email, late submissions will be accepted within 48 hours after the indicated due date for submission and will result in one full letter grade deduction beyond the actual grade awarded for the project. The "Final Exam" will be posted on MyJCU four weeks before the assignment is due.25%
Class Attendance and ParticipationClass attendance is strongly encouraged due to the intense amount of lecture material. Active class participation is encouraged and desired. Class attendance and participation is worth 25% of the overall course grade. One to two absences merits a grade respectively of 97.5% and 95% ("A") including legitimate documented absences. Three to four absences merits a grade respectively of 92.5% and 90% ("A-") including legitimate documented absences. Each additional absence will be deducted an additional five points per absence (5 absences = 85% "B", 6 absences = 80% "B-", etc.). "Legitimate documented absences" are those communicated directly to this course instructror from JCU's Accademic Dean's Office via email and include "permit of stay appointments". MANDATORY SITE VISIT OF THE VATICAN (Vatican Museums, St. Peter's Basilica, and the Tomb of Simon Peter, a.k.a. "the Scavi") on FRIDAY, 06 DECEMBER 2019. Meeting time is at 07:30 AM SHARP at the entrance to the Vatican Museums in Viale Vaticano, and the finish time is at 1:30 PM. Round-trip travel time is an additional one hour. Failure to attend this site visit will result in FOUR absences and the forfeiture of the student activity fee for the course.25%

-ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:
A Excellent. Highly competent work of this quality directly and completely addresses the questions and issues raised and provides a coherent argument displaying an extensive knowledge of relevant information and content. This type of work demonstrates a thorough analysis and synthesis of material and a capacity for critical thinking. (94-100% A; 90-93% A-)
B Above Average to Very Good. This is a competent level of performance and directly addresses the questions and issues raised. There is demonstration of some ability to analyze and synthesize coherently the material and to think critically. The work does not suffer from major errors, omissions, imprecisions, and/or inaccuracies. (87-89% B+; 84-86% B; 80-83% B-)
C Average to Good. This is an acceptable level of performance and demonstrates work that is clear but limited with errors, omissions, imprecisions, inaccuracies, and/or a basic anaylisis and synthesis of the material and the process of critical thinking. (77-79% C+; 74-76% C; 70-73% C-)
D Below Average to Unsatisfactory. This is an unacceptable level of performance and demonstrates work that is replete with errors, omissions, imprecisions, inaccuracies and/or a coherent grasp of the material. Important information is omitted and irrelevant information is included. (60-69% D)
F Failure. This work demonstrates little to no engagement with the material. The work is irrelevant, incomprehensible, incomplete, or is the result of unsubmitted and/or penalized assignments. (0-59% F)

-ATTENDANCE REQUIREMENTS:
ATTENDANCE REQUIREMENTS AND EXAMINATION POLICY
Class attendance is strongly encouraged due to the intense amount of lecture material. Active class participation is encouraged and desired. Class attendance and participation is worth 25% of the overall course grade. Refer to "Assessment Method" guidelines above for details on grade calculations for absences and participation.

MANDATORY VISIT of the Vatican (including the Vatican Museums, St. Peter's Basilica, and the "Scavi", i.e. the tomb of Simon Peter) on FRIDAY, 06 DECEMBER 2019. Meeting point and time is at the entrance to the Vatican Museums in Viale Vaticano at 07:30 AM SHARP (NOT St. Peter's Square)! Failure to attend will count as FOUR FULL ABSENCES and will result in forfeiture of the "student activity fee" for this course.

You cannot make-up a major exam (midterm or final) without the permission of the Dean’s Office. The Dean’s Office will grant such permission only when the absence was caused by a serious impediment, such as a documented illness, hospitalization or death in the immediate family (in which you must attend the funeral) or other situations of similar gravity. Absences due to other meaningful conflicts, such as job interviews, family celebrations, travel difficulties, student misunderstandings or personal convenience, will not be excused. Students who will be absent from a major exam must notify the Dean’s Office prior to that exam. Absences from class due to the observance of a religious holiday will normally be excused. Individual students who will have to miss class to observe a religious holiday should notify the instructor by the end of the Add/Drop period to make prior arrangements for making up any work that will be missed. The final exam period runs from 09 December until 13 December 2019.
ACADEMIC HONESTY
As stated in the university catalog, any student who commits an act of academic dishonesty will receive a failing grade on the work in which the dishonesty occurred. In addition, acts of academic dishonesty, irrespective of the weight of the assignment, may result in the student receiving a failing grade in the course. Instances of academic dishonesty will be reported to the Dean of Academic Affairs. A student who is reported twice for academic dishonesty is subject to summary dismissal from the University. In such a case, the Academic Council will then make a recommendation to the President, who will make the final decision.
STUDENTS WITH LEARNING OR OTHER DISABILITIES
John Cabot University does not discriminate on the basis of disability or handicap. Students with approved accommodations must inform their professors at the beginning of the term. Please see the website for the complete policy.

SCHEDULE

SessionSession FocusReading AssignmentOther AssignmentMeeting Place/Exam Dates
WEEK 1 Monday 02 SeptemberIntroduction One: the “Course”: Who, When, and Where? Overview: Course prospectus, syllabus, schedule and expectations; Who are “We”? Why study “Religion”, the “Popes”, “History”, or the “Catholic Church”?SyllabusIN AULA 
WEEK 1 Wednesday 04 SeptemberIntroduction Two: the “Journey”: How, What, and Why? Semiotics and Paradigms: How do human societies form? How do basic needs and wants take on religious symbolism, significance, and systems? SyllabusIN AULA 
WEEK 2 Monday 09 SeptemberCritical Thinking: the “Process”: Thinking logically, analyzing rationally, and synthesizing critically. Hermeneutics: Methodologies for studying objects of inquiry: philology, epistemology, metaphysics, history, and culture. Previous Lecture NotesIN AULA 
WEEK 2 Wednesday 11 SeptemberPontifex Maximus: “Building Bridges”: The world’s oldest, continuously surviving, and most important title and office (8th century BCE – 1st century CE). Ancient “Eternal” Rome: from the Roman monarchy, through the Republican SPQR, to the Imperial Period; Roman Law and Religion. • Previous Lecture Notes • Bokenkotter, “Prefaces” and “Introduction” • Duffy, “Prefaces” • Norwich, “Illustrations”, “Maps”, and “Introduction”IN AULA 
WEEK 3 Monday 16 SeptemberPeter: “the Rock”: The world’s second oldest, continuously surviving, and most important title and office (2nd century BCE – 1st century CE). Ancient “Roman” Jerusalem: Mosaic Law; the “Sanhedrin”; "Church", "Peter", and “Christ” in the Christian New Testament• Previous Lecture Notes • 1 Cor 15, 1-14; Mt 16, 13-20; Mt 27, 57-61; Jn 20,1-10; Jn 20,30-31; Jn 21,24-25 • Bokenkotter, “Chapters 1-3”IN AULA 
WEEK 3 Wednesday 18 SeptemberThe Fifth Gospel: “Incarnation & Resurrection”: Religion’s Astrological and Astronomical origins, and humanity’s most examined human artifact. Othonia, Sudarion, and Sindon: did Jesus “of Nazareth” or Jesus “Christ” exist?• Previous Lecture Notes • Mt 27, 57-61; Jn 20,1-10 • Duffy, “Chapter 1.1” • Norwich, “Chapter 1”IN AULA 
WEEK 4 Monday 23 SeptemberThird Century Crisis One: “Tertullian’s Turn and Cyprian’s Solution”: A new monotheism and the emergence of a state within a state (2nd – 3rd century CE). Ancient Roman “Architects”: Stoic "unitas", Tertullian’s "trinitas", and Cyprian’s "ecclesiae catholicae".Previous Lecture NotesIN AULA 
WEEK 4 Wednesday 25 SeptemberThird Century Crisis Two: “Persecutions or Supplications”: Roman religious revival and its consequences for Christians…and the Empire (3rd century CE). Ancient Roman “Culture Clash”: The “lapsi”, “confessors and martyrs”, “ex comunio”, the “baptismal controversy”, and Pope Stephen I.• Previous Lecture Notes • Duffy, “Chapter 1.2”IN AULA 
WEEK 5 Monday 30 SeptemberConstantine’s Conundrum: “If you can’t beat them, join them”: Roman policy shift regarding religion and the dawn of a different empire (4th century CE). Ancient Roman “New Deal”: Diocletian, Roman “Toleration”, a “Nova Roma”, the Council of Nicaea I, the “Collegium Pontificium”, and Julian “the Apostate”.• Previous Lecture Notes • Bokenkotter, “Chapters 4-6” • Duffy, “Chapter 1.3”IN AULA 
WEEK 5 Wednesday 02 OctoberTheodosian Shift: “Church-State Identification”: Will the real “Christ”, please, stand up? (4th – 5th century CE). Ancient Roman “Identity Politics”: The Councils of Constantinople I, Ephesus, and Chalcedon; Pope Leo’s “Tome”, the “Fall” of Rome, and a new P.M..• Previous Lecture Notes • Duffy, “Chapter 1.4”IN AULA 
WEEK 6 Monday 07 OctoberRome’s “Fall” and “Metamorphosis”: “Who’s in Charge Here?!”. The East’s complacency and the West’s precarity (6th – 8th century CE). Roman & Papal “Dark” Ages: The Councils of Constantinople II, Constantinople III, and Nicaea II; the advent of Islam; the end of Arianism and Iconoclasm.• Previous Lecture Notes • Bokenkotter, “Chapters 7-9” • Norwich, “Chapters 2-3”IN AULA 
WEEK 6 Wednesday 09 OctoberRise of the Papacy: “Charles in Charge…or so he thought”. The West’s consolidation and the East’s dissolution (8th – 11th century CE). And Then They Were “Two”: The “Barbarians” vs. the Merovingians and Carolingians; the birth of the “Holy Roman Empire” and the “Papal States”; monasticism and the “schola”; the “Great Schism” of 1054.• Previous Lecture Notes • Bokenkotter, “Chapters 10-13” • Duffy, “Chapter 2” • Norwich, “Chapters 4-8”IN AULA 
WEEK 7 Monday 14 OctoberPapal Reboot of Civilization: “Deus lo vult”. Rome’s Reboot of Antiquity, for better and for worse (11th – 13th century CE). Roman “Middle” Ages: The “universitas”; the “Crusdaes”; the “indulgentia” and the “buying and selling of indulgences”Previous Lecture NotesIN AULA  
WEEK 7 Wednesday 16 OctoberMID-TERM EXAM: to be completed “on your own time and at home”. Four weeks in addition to exam time is afforded to the completion of this assignment (25% or course grade).MID-TERM EXAMIN AULAWednesday, 16 October 2019 - MID-TERM EXAM DUE!
WEEK 8 Monday 21 OctoberRole of the Papacy: Pope Gregory VII vs. H.R.E. Henry IV and the “Dictatus Papae”; the “Magna Charta”.• Bokenkotter, “Chapters 14-16” • Duffy, “Chapter 2” • Norwich, “Chapters 9-13”IN AULAGraded MID-TERM EXAM returned to students.
WEEK 8 Wednesday 23 OctoberRetreat of the Papacy: “Living Saints”. The Papacy’s Claim of Rome. (13th – 14th century CE). Papal “Middle” Ages: Lateran Council IV and the Mendicant Orders; Second Council of Lyons; the “Unam Sanctam” and the first “Jubilee”; the “Avignon Papacy”, the “Western Schism”, and Catherine of Siena.• Previous Lecture Notes • Duffy, “Chapter 3”IN AULA 
WEEK 9 Monday 28 OctoberReturn of the King: “Living Sinners”. Rome’s Claim of the Papacy (15th century CE). Proto-Rinascimento & Proto-Reformation: The “Black Death”; Pope Martin V and the Council of Florence; Pope Eugene IV; John Wycliffe and Jan Hus; Slavery; Pope Nicholas V and the “Fall” of Constantinople.• Previous Lecture Notes • Bokenkotter, “Chapters 17-18” • Norwich, “Chapters 14-16”IN AULA 
WEEK 9 Wednesday 30 OctoberPapal Power: “Forged in Fire and Gold”. Papal Rebirth of Rome (15th – 16th century CE). Papal Rinascimento I: Pope Sixtus IV and his Chapel; Savonarola, Pope Alexander VI, and a New World; Pope Julius II, a reluctant sculptor, and an ambitious architect.• Previous Lecture Notes • Duffy, “Chapter 4.1”IN AULA 
WEEK 10 Monday 04 NovemberPapal Prowess: “The Ceiling that Daunts”: “Catholic” catechesis "a fresco" (16th century CE). Papal Rinascimento II: Michelangelo and his ceiling that almost wasn’t.• Previous Lecture Notes • Norwich, “Chapters 17-19”IN AULA 
WEEK 10 Wednesday 06 NovemberPapal Presumption: “The Room that Taunts”: Papal propaganda "a fresco" (16th century CE). Papal Rinascimento III: Raffaello and his room that almost killed him.• Previous Lecture Notes • Duffy, “Chapter 4.2”IN AULA 
WEEK 11 Monday 11 NovemberPapal Paralysis: “The Wall that Haunts”: Final Judgment "a fresco" (16th century CE). Protestant Reformation: Luther, Calvin, and Henry VIII; the Sack of Rome; Michelangelo and his wall that almost condemned him.• Previous Lecture Notes • Bokenkotter, “Chapters 19-21” • Norwich, “Chapter 20”IN AULA 
WEEK 11 Wednesday 13 NovemberPapal Posturing: “The Writing on the Wall”: From Reformation to Revolution (16th – 17th century CE). CounterReformation and Revolution: Pope Pius V, the Jesuits, and the Council of Trent; Copernicus and Galileo; Popes Urban VIII and Alexander VII; Bernini.• Previous Lecture Notes • Duffy, “Chapter 4.3-4.4” • Norwich, “Chapter 21”IN AULA 
WEEK 12 Monday 18 November"Research Project Presentation" preparation day. Class will not meet formally in order to compensate for site visit of the Vatican on Friday, 06 December 2019.Research readings pertinent to individual "Research Project Presenation".DOMICILIOClass will not meet formally in order to compensate for site visit of the Vatican on Friday, 06 December 2019.
WEEK 12 Wednesday 20 NovemberThe Modern Papacy (18th – 19th century CE). "Research Project Presentation". • Bokenkotter, “Chapters 22-27” • Duffy, “Chapter 5” • Norwich, “Chapters 22-25” IN AULA - Research Project Presentation DUE!Wednesday, 20 November & Monday, 25 November 2019
WEEK 13 Monday 25 NovemberThe Modern & Contemporary Papacy (20th – 21st century CE). "Research Project Presentation". • Bokenkotter, “Chapter 28-37” • Duffy, “Chapter 6” • Norwich, “Chapters 26-28”IN AULA - Research Project Presentation DUE!Wednesday, 20 November & Monday, 25 November 2019
WEEK 13 Wednesday 27 NovemberClass will not meet formally in order to compensate for site visit of the Vatican on Friday, 06 December 2019.All readings previously indicated on the syllabus.DOMICILIOClass will not meet formally in order to compensate for site visit of the Vatican on Friday, 06 December 2019.
WEEK 14 Monday 02 DecemberClass will not meet formally in order to compensate for site visit of the Vatican on Friday, 06 December 2019.All readings previously indicated on the syllabus.DOMICILIO Class will not meet formally in order to compensate for site visit of the Vatican on Friday, 06 December 2019.
WEEK 14 Wednesday, 04 DecemberCourse Review for "Final Exam". Course Evaluations.All readings previously and lecture material indicated on the syllabus.IN AULA 
WEEK 14 Friday 06 DecemberVatiland: “Top to Bottom”: MANDATORY Site Visit of the Rooms of Raffaello, the Sistine Chapel, St. Peter’s Basilica, its Dome, and the “Scavi” beneath (Simon Peter’s tomb). Mandatory Site Visit of the Vatican: Meeting Point, Date, and Time: Vatican Museums Entrance in Viale Vaticano on Friday, 06 December 2019 at 07:30 AM SHARP! End Time at 01:30 PM. (plus 1 hour round-trip travel time)Previous lecture material and readings indicated on course syllabus.IN SITU - Meeting Point, Date, and Time: Vatican Museums Entrance in Viale Vaticano on Friday, 06 December 2019 at 07:30 AM SHARP! End Time at 01:30 PM. Students that fail to attend will be marked for four absences. (plus 1 hour round-trip travel time)Friday, 06 December 2019 at 07:30 AM SHARP! Entrance to the Vatican Museums in Viale Vaticano (NOT St. Peter's Square!). No backpacks, rucksacks, bookbags, or long umbrellas. SACRED SITE DRESS CODE.(plus 1 hour round-trip travel time)
WEEK 15 Monday, 09 through Friday, 13 December 2019Whether you study hard or hardly study, I sincerely wish you all the best! IN AULATBD