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COURSE NAME: "The Enlightenment and the World"
SEMESTER & YEAR: Fall 2018

EMAIL: [email protected]
HOURS: TTH 11:30-12:45 PM
PREREQUISITES: Prerequisite: Junior Standing. Co-requisite: EN 110
OFFICE HOURS: By appointment--Ask me just after class or e-mail me.

History Research Seminar: 300-level history courses designated by the prefix HS-RS indicate courses being offered as Research Seminars. These courses are writing-intensive and help to train students to carry out original research by guiding them through the preparation of a significant research paper. History majors are encouraged to take these before their senior year, and especially before the semester in which they prepare their thesis.

This course explores the eighteenth-century intellectual and cultural movement known as the Enlightenment in its global context. In part it does so by examining the work of major philosophes, or thinkers, of the era (e.g., Diderot, Hume, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Smith, Voltaire, etc.). It also examines the historical context in which the philosophes worked, focusing on eighteenth-century Europe's relationship with other parts of the world. Much of the course is dedicated to the relationship between the Enlightenment and its "shadows" or "others" in both Europe and abroad, including women, Native Americans, Afro-Atlantic slaves, and Polynesians. As such, it investigates how these people and peoples shaped Enlightenment thought as well as the roles the Enlightenment played in the development of modern gender, racial, and imperial ideologies.
This course will primarily be run as a seminar in which we discuss the assigned readings.  As such, your active participation is absolutely necessary to making the course work well.  The high percentage of your grade based on your participation reflects this fact.

In successfully completing this course, you should work on developing (and improving) the following competencies and skills:

  • An understanding of the major intellectual and cultural developments, as well as the historical significance of the Enlightenment in its global context;
  • A sense of the ways in which eighteenth-century social and global contexts shaped Enlightenment thought;
  • An understanding of some of the major modes of analysis historians and other scholars have used to interpret Enlightenment thought and its relationship to its historical contexts;
  • Critical analysis of primary sources, including literary and intellectual texts;
  • Critical analysis of historians' and other scholarly arguments;
  • Researching historical subjects (i.e., finding and evaluating primary and secondary sources);
  • Developing well-reasoned, well-supported historical arguments;
  • Effectively communicating information, arguments and ideas orally and in writing in accurate, polished, and persuasive English.
Book TitleAuthorPublisherISBN numberLibrary Call NumberComments
The Enlightenment, 3rd EditionDorinda OutramCambridge University Press9781107636576 Available at Almost Corner Bookshop
Persian LettersMontesquieuOxford University Press978-0192806352 Available at the Almost Corner Bookshop
Letters of a Peruvian WomanFrançoise de GraffignyOxford University Press9780199208173 Available at the Almost Corner Bookshop
Race and the Enlightenment: A ReaderEmmanuel EzeWiley-Blackwell978-0631201373 Available at the Almost Corner Bookshop

In Class Participation Guidelines Weight This course will primarily be run as a seminar in which we discuss the assigned readings. As such, your active participation in our discussions is absolutely necessary to making the course work well. The high percentage of your grade that will be based on your participation reflects that fact. You should bring a question based on the readings that you believe we should discuss to each class. On occasion, additional brief in class or out of class reaction papers may be assigned as components of your participation grade. Please note that behaving in ways that create distractions for other members of the class (including the professor) will lower your participation grade. Such behavior includes, but is not limited to: messaging, checking Facebook or other social networks, catching up on e-mail, watching on-line videos, playing games, reading non-class related materials, studying for other courses, shopping on-line, and generally any activity that detracts from your or any other classmate's full participation in what we are doing in the classroom.20%
Reaction Papers (3-4)In each of the reaction papers (approximately two double-spaced pages in length), you will develop a brief but coherent and well-supported argument regarding the readings for the day on which the paper is due. In these papers, you should not summarize the reading, but rather develop a main thought of your own building on those readings. Ways of developing such arguments include, but are not limited to: critiquing some part of the argument of a secondary source, testing some part of the argument of a secondary source through the analysis of a primary source, comparing and contrasting different readings, or developing a point made by one of the authors more fully and in doing so explaining more of what it may tell us about the subject under discussion. Your grade for these reaction papers will be determined by the strength and focus of your analysis, the persuasiveness of your argument (including quality of writing), and the originality of your thought. The due dates for the first and second reaction papers can be found on the course schedule below. You may do the third (and final mandatory) reaction paper for any class date on which a which a written assignment is not already due (excluding the other days on which we are discussing Graffigny and Montesquieu). You should hand in this final reaction paper on the day we read the sources it discusses.20%
Research Paper (including draft, revision, and presentation, c. 15 pages)For the research paper (c. 15 pages), you will explore a topic appropriate for the course chosen in consultation with me. Your paper should build on both primary and secondary sources, and in preparing it, I will guide you through the processes of preparing a first draft and revising that draft to produce a stronger final paper. You also will present this paper to the rest of the class for discussion. For these discussions, each of you will also review at least one of your colleagues’ papers, providing both a written review (for the author and for me) and an oral commentary during the discussion of her/his paper in class. The grade on this assignment will be determined by the strength of your analysis and research, the persuasiveness of your argument (including quality of writing), and the originality of your thought. 30%
Final ExamThe final exam will be composed of two essay questions I will give you the week before the exam. You will answer one of those questions. The exam will be open book and open notes. As it is a pre-circulated, open-book exam, you will be expected to cite any authors and works you use in developing your arguments. Your grade on the exam will depend upon the analytical strength and persuasiveness of your arguments, your capacity to discuss the material we cover in the course as a whole, your command of the course readings, and the factual accuracy of your answers. 30%

AWork of this quality directly addresses the question or problem raised and provides a coherent argument displaying an extensive knowledge of relevant information or content. This type of work demonstrates the ability to critically evaluate concepts and theory and has an element of novelty and originality. There is clear evidence of a significant amount of reading beyond that required for the course.
BThis is highly competent level of performance and directly addresses the question or problem raised.There is a demonstration of some ability to critically evaluatetheory and concepts and relate them to practice. Discussions reflect the student’s own arguments and are not simply a repetition of standard lecture andreference material. The work does not suffer from any major errors or omissions and provides evidence of reading beyond the required assignments.
CThis is an acceptable level of performance and provides answers that are clear but limited, reflecting the information offered in the lectures and reference readings.
DThis level of performances demonstrates that the student lacks a coherent grasp of the material.Important information is omitted and irrelevant points included.In effect, the student has barely done enough to persuade the instructor that s/he should not fail.
FThis work fails to show any knowledge or understanding of the issues raised in the question. Most of the material in the answer is irrelevant.

There are no specific attendance requirements for this course.  See above on participation, keeping in mind that to participate adequately you of course need to be present on a regular basis.
As stated in the university catalog, any student who commits an act of academic dishonesty will receive a failing grade on the work in which the dishonesty occurred. In addition, acts of academic dishonesty, irrespective of the weight of the assignment, may result in the student receiving a failing grade in the course. Instances of academic dishonesty will be reported to the Dean of Academic Affairs. A student who is reported twice for academic dishonesty is subject to summary dismissal from the University. In such a case, the Academic Council will then make a recommendation to the President, who will make the final decision.
John Cabot University does not discriminate on the basis of disability or handicap. Students with approved accommodations must inform their professors at the beginning of the term. Please see the website for the complete policy.


Important Course Policies

All assignments must be submitted in the form of both hard and electronic copies (e-mail them to me as .pdf, .doc, or .docx files).

All late work will be penalized by at least one letter grade.  No late work will be accepted following the final examination.

Any documented case of academic dishonesty on any assignment will result not only in a failing grade for the assignment in question but also in a failing grade for the course as a whole. Please remember that, as the University's policy states, "Plagiarism can be deliberate or negligent; students are responsible for ensuring that any work submitted with their name on it is properly referenced."  If you have questions about how to cite material properly, refer to the appropriate sections of the MLA Style Manual or Chicago Manual of Style--if you have questions as to whether particular pieces of material should be cited, ask me. Note that submitting work that you have previously submitted (or plan to submit) for credit in another course is also a form of academic dishonesty, unless you obtain explicit approval from both instructors to do so. For this course, no such double submission is allowed. Please note that your papers may be submitted to turnitin.com to check their content for plagiarism.

Accessing Shared Documents on MyJCU and Other Course Readings

1. Go to the internal web site (MY JCU).
2. After you have logged in, click on the course post-it for Fall 2018, HS RS 382. Then click on shared files.
3. Please note that handouts in the form of pdf documents may not open with some internet browsers (in particular there seem to be incompatibilities with Chrome).  If a source doesn't open, try another browser; if the problem persists please e-mail me.
4. Be sure to check the handouts page frequently for changes and updates. Similarly, I will post messages on the MyJCU board should I need to contact you in between class meetings (e.g., in the case of an unexpected class cancellation).
5. All other course readings are either in the form of the books listed above or available on-line through the links on this syllabus.
6. J-Stor Readings--While on campus, you should be able to access these readings simply by clicking on the links on the syllabus.  On the page that appears, you can find links to download the full article as a PDF file or to print it out.  Off-campus you may need to go to the website for the Frohring Library, click on the link for "Databases" and "J-Stor" and then if need be search for the article manually.

Course Schedule.  Please note that the following is subject to change--any updates will be made to the on-line syllabus, available on the University's webpage: http://www.johncabot.edu/academics/courses/course-schedules-syllabi.aspx.
(LAST UPDATED November 5)

Part 1:  Introductions

9/4. Introductions:  What is the Enlightenment?

9/6. The Immediate Background: Old Regime Europe and the Larger World
Outram, 1-9
Strobel, The Global Atlantic 1400-1900 (excerpts), Required: 135-147, Recommended: All (Shared Files, MyJCU)
Loyseau, A Treatise on Orders (excerpts) (Shared Files, MyJCU)
"Voltaire on Bacon, Locke and Newton" (Shared Files, MyJCU)

9/11. The Dangers of Reading
Outram, 10-25
Darnton, "A Clandestine Bookseller in the Provinces" (Shared Files, MyJCU)

Part 2:  Did the Enlightenment have a Sex?

9/13. Salons
Goodman, The Republic of Letters (excerpts),  (Shared Files, MyJCU, Required: 73-91, 99-111, 125-135; Recommended: entire excerpt)
Start Reading Graffigny, Letters of a Peruvian Woman

9/18. Questions of Roles, Rights, and Reason
Outram, 84-98
Rousseau, Emile (excerpts) (Shared Files, MyJCU)
Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Women (excerpts) (Shared Files, MyJCU)
Continue Reading Graffigny, Letters of a Peruvian Woman

9/20.  A Female Philosophe and the Incas--Françoise de Graffigny I
Graffigny, Letters from a Peruvian Woman, ix-xxix, 1-59

9/21.  A Female Philosophe and the Incas--Françoise de Graffigny II /OFFICIAL FRIDAY UNIVERSITY MAKE-UP)
Graffigny, Letters from a Peruvian Woman, 59-144
Reaction Paper 1 Due

Part 3: Mapping Humanity Across the Globe

9/25. Classifying and Ordering--The Enlightenment and Science
Outram, 99-113
Eze, Race and the Enlightenment, 10-14, 79-90, 104-108
d'Alembert, "Preliminary Discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot" (Shared Files, MyJCU)
"Trees of Knowledge from Bacon to the Encyclopédie"

9/27. Consumption, Coffee Houses, and Slavery
Melton, "Drinking in Public" (Shared Files, MyJCU)
Dubois, "An Enslaved Enlightenment," 1-14 (Shared Files, MyJCU)

10/2. Africa, Africans, and the Enlightenment
Harvey, "Enlightenment Encounters in West Africa," 115-122 (Shared Files, MyJCU)
Encyclopédie Articles on Africa and Africans (Shared Files, MyJCU)
Eze, 15-28, 58-64, 70-78, 93-94
Voltaire, "Beauty" (Shared Files, MyJCU)

10/4. The Problem of Slavery
Outram, 67-83
Eze, 30-38, 95-103
Encyclopédie Articles Relating to Slavery (Shared Files, MyJCU)
Cugoano, Thoughts and Sentiments (excerpts) (Shared Files, MyJCU)

10/9.  Native Americans, European Settlers, and the Enlightenment
Harvey, "The Noble Savage and French Cultural Criticism," "The Dispute of the New World," and "What Civilization Can Learn"(Shared Files, MyJCU)
Rousseau, "A Dissertation on the Origin and Foundation of the Inequality of Mankind" (Shared Files, MyJCU)
Review Eze, 15-20
Preliminary Bibliography and Paragraph Outlining Research Topic Due

10/11. The Newest Noble Savages: Polynesians and Pacific Exploration
Outram, 54-66
Diderot, Supplement to the Voyage of Bougainville (Shared Files, MyJCU)
Start Reading Montesquieu, Persian Letters

10/16. Further East: China and the Enlightenment
Harvey, "The Wisdom of the East,"41-68 (Shared Files, MyJCU)
Eze, 62-64, Review 25-28
Montesquieu, "On the Chinese Empire" (Shared Files, MyJCU)
Voltaire, Essay on the Customs and Spirits of Nations (excerpts) (Shared Files, MyJCU)
Keep Reading Montesquieu, Persian Letters

Keep Reading Montesquieu, Persian Letters

10/23. Strangers in a Strange Land: Montesquieu's Persians, I
Montesquieu, The Persian Letters, vii-xxx, 3-65

10/25. Strangers in a Strange Land: Montesquieu's Persians, II
Montesquieu, The Persian Letters, 65-148

Reaction Paper 2 Due

11/6.  Strangers in a Strange Land: Montesquieu's Persians, III
Montesquieu, The Persian Letters,148-243

Part 4: A New, Global Science of Humanity

11/8. A Return to Paganism? Religion and the Enlightenment
Outram, 114-129
Hume, "On Miracles" (Shared Files, MyJCU)
D'Holbach, "Good Sense" and "The System of Nature" (Excerpts, Shared Files, MyJCU)
Voltaire, "Religion" (Shared Files, MyJCU)

11/9. A New, Global Economics (and Political Economy) (OFFICIAL FRIDAY UNIVERSITY MAKE-UP DAY)
Outram, 43-53
Smith, Wealth of Nations (excerpts) (Shared Files, MyJCU)
Quesnay, "Grains" from the Encyclopédie (Shared Files, MyJCU)

11/13. A Science of Politics
Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws (excerpts) (Shared Files, MyJCU)

Part 5: Applied Enlightenment

11/15. Enlightened Politics, Absolutism and Otherwise
Outram, 26-42, 130-146
Documents Regarding Catherine the Great https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/18catherine.asp

Frederick II, "Essay of Forms of Government" https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/18fred2.asp
Frederick II, "Political Testament" http://www.thenagain.info/Classes/Sources/Frederick%20the%20Great.html
Jefferson, "Declaration of Independence" https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/declaration-transcript
"Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen" http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/rightsof.asp
Research Paper Draft Due

11/20. Research Paper Presentations and Discussions

11/27. Research Paper Presentations and Discussions

11/29. Research Paper Presentations and Discussions

12/4. A New Historical Vision? A First Global History?
Hegel, "Geographical Basis of World History," in Eze, 110-150
Condorcet, "On the Future Progress of the Human Mind" https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/condorcet-progress.asp
Review Voltaire, Essay on the Customs and Spirits of Nations (excerpts) (Shared Files, MyJCU)

12/6.  The End of the Enlightenment?
Conrad, "Enlightenment in Global History: A Historiographical Critique," 999-1027 https://www-jstor-org.jcu.idm.oclc.org/stable/23427878

NO CLASS--Make-up by individual meetings to discuss paper drafts 11/20-11/29
Research Paper Final Draft Due by 4 p.m. in my mailbox (Guarini Campus Faculty Room)

Final Exam--Monday, December 10, 3:00 p.m.-5:30 p.m.